Roman Military Campaigns – The Second Flavian Period (c. AD90 -c.105)

The Withdrawal from Lowland Scotland

Following the withdrawal from the Highland borders around the Tay many other forts in lowland Scotland were decommissioned, and in the early 90’s the northernmost frontier was delineated by a series of strongly held forts across the southern margins of the Cheviot Hills at Newstead, Oakwood, Milton, Dalswinton and Glenlochar.

Evidence for this period comes in the form of dateable pottery and structural remains. Newstead, Oakwood and Glenlochar exhibit two separate first-century structural phases. Milton went through at least two, possibly three phases of development during the first century. Dalswinton had perhaps as many as four separate first-century building phases. Late-first century samian ware has been unearthed at both Newstead and Dalswinton. Late-first century samian ware has been found at Castlecary, but no first-century structural remains have been discovered. As many as four first-century phases have been uncovered during excavations at the small fort on Loudoun Hill. The latest samian pottery from these forts was produced in the last decade of the first century which probably points to their being evacuated sometime about the turn of the second century.

Dispositions During Flavian Period II (c.90AD – c.105)

Name N.G.Ref. Description
CORSTOPITVM (Corbridge, Northumberland) NY9864 Large Fort
ALAVNA (Learchild, Northumberland) NU1011 Large Fort
TRIMONTIVM (Newstead, Borders) NT5734 Large Fort
Milton, Dumfries & Galloway NT0901 Large Fort
Dalswinton, Dumfries & Galloway NX9384 Large Fort
Glenlochar, Dumfries & Galloway NX7364 Large Fort
BREMENIVM (High Rochester, Northumberland) NY8398 Medium-Sized Fort
Broomholm, Dumfries & Galloway NY3781 Medium-Sized Fort
Oakwood, Borders NT4224 Medium-Sized Fort
Loudoun Hill (Strathclyde) NS6037 Medium-Sized Fort
Cappuck, Borders NT6921 Small Fort
Chew Green, Northumberland NT7808 Fortlet
Castlecary, Central NS7978 Fortlet

References for Roman Military Campaigns – The Second Flavian Period (c. AD90-c.105)

  • The Roman Invasion of Britain by Graham Webster (Batsford, London, 1980);
  • Rome Against Caratacus by Graham Webster (Batsford, London, 1981);
  • Britons and the Roman Army by Grace Simpson (Gregg, London, 1964);
  • Historical Map and Guide: Roman Britain by the OS (3rd Edition, 1956; 4th Ed., 1990; 5th Ed., 2001);