British Nobles

Of the Early Roman Era

BerikosAtrebatessee Verica.
Commius the GaulAtrebatesA noble of the Gaulish Atrebates tribe from Brittany? He became an aide of Julius Caesar sometime during 56AD?, accompanying him on both of his expeditions to Britain, where in 54BC he was instrumental in persuading the British king Cassivellaunus to come to terms. In 51BC, however, he joined forces with other Gaulish leaders in an attempt to relieve Vercingetorix during the siege of Alesia. His Atrebatean regiment along with all the other Gaulish relief forces were soundly repulsed by Caesar. The following year, realising that there would be no escape from Caesar's retribution, he came to terms with his Legate, Marcus Antonius, and offered some of his own family as hostages. Still not satisfied that he could trust Antony, he later fled to Britain and vowed never to set eyes on a Roman again. He founded a dynasty among the existing Belgic Atrebatean settlers, possibly first at Noviomagus, then later moving to Calleva. In c.30BC there appeared the very first inscribed British coins, the name COMMIOS appearing on the obverse, and featuring a triple-tailed horse on the reverse. Recent numismatic evidence suggests that the staters inscribed COM COMMIOS were among the first to be issued. This suggests that Commius the Gaul, former friend of Julius Caesar, was succeeded by a son also named Commius who produced the inscribed coinages. (see also Commius the Younger.)
Commius the YoungerAtrebatesCommius the Younger, succeeded his father Commius the Gaul in c.35BC and ruled from Calleva until c.20BC, when he was succeeded by his own sons, first Tincommius, then Eppillus and finally Verica. Coinage evidence points to a period of joint rule with his eldest son Tincommius, perhaps from c.25BC. (see also Commius the Gaul.)
EppillusAtrebatesA son of Commius the Younger. His elder brother Tincommius succeeded to the Atrebatean throne following a period of joint rule after their father's death in c.20BC. Tincommius continued to rule the kingdom from Noviomagus on the south coast, and left his brother Eppillus to govern the northern tribal lands from Calleva. Subjection to the rule of his brother seems not to have been acceptable to Eppillus however, probably because of his siblings openly pro-Roman tendancies, for in c.7AD he conspired to remove Tincommius from the Atrebatean throne, forcing him to flee to Rome to petition the emperor. Augustus did not want to trouble himself with the situation, however, and recognised Eppillus as king of the Atrebates, allowing him to issue coinage bearing the title REX CALL. His reign over the Atrebatean heartlands was quite short, for in c.15AD he was supplanted by his younger brother Verica who possibly raised support among the Atrebatean nobles at his brothers unconstitutional accession. He escaped to Cantium, where in turn, he supplanted either Dubnovellaunus or Vosenios as king.
TincommiusAtrebatesThe eldest son of Commius the Younger, with whom it would appear he jointly ruled for a number of years until his fathers death in c.20BC. It is possible that during the period of joint rule, Tincommius governed the southern half of the Atrebatean realm, operating from the oppidum of Noviomagus, and upon his succession he preferred to stay at the southerly sea port. This left his brother Eppillus to govern the northern territory from Calleva, and was to be the undoing of the lazy Tincommius, for it is from this time that the oppidum at Calleva developed into the main centre of Atrebatean power, under the rule of Eppilus. In around 5BC, it would appear that diplomatic initiatives were instated between Tincommius and the emperor which concluded with a formal treaty. His gold staters issued around this time, inscribed with TINC in a recessed panel on the obverse and a very romanised version of the Atrebatean triple-tailed horse on the reverse, suggests that he had acquired the services of a Roman moneyer. Recent metallurgical research has shown that the issue of silver units associated with the TINC staters have almost exactly the same alloy content as contemporary Roman denarii, leading us to conclude that the bullion for this issue almost certainly came from Rome. These evident pro-Roman sympathies, in direct opposition to those of his father, possibly caused a breakaway faction of Atrebatean nobles to found the tribe of the Dobunni at this time. Before 7AD he fell victim to a coup hatched by his younger brother Eppillus and was removed from the throne, whereupon he travelled to Rome to plead his case for reinstatement before Augustus. He was refused however, because Augustus was in no position to mount a military campaign in Britain at this time, and to keep a friendly face at Calleva, Eppillus was recognised by Rome as king.
VericaAtrebatesThe youngest son of Commius the Younger. After his brother Eppillus supplanted their elder brother Tincommius from the Atrebatean thone in c.5AD, Verica built up a following of Atrebatean nobles opposed to the rule of Eppillus, and with their help siezed the throne from Eppillus for himself in c.15AD. Like both of his brothers before him, he was recognised by the Roman emperor - by this time, possibly Tiberius - and therefore styled himself REX on his coins. He ruled over the Atrebates for many years from the tribal capital of Calleva before being forced out by the military expansionism of Epaticcus the brother of Cunobelin in c.25AD. It would seem that Verica continued to war with this rival king for some time, being forced gradually further south by his stronger opponent. Around 35AD however, Epaticcus was either killed or died naturally, and Verica made some progress toward retrieving the lands lost to the Catuvellauni. Verica is probably to be equated with the noble 'Berikos', mentioned by Dio (LX,19), in a passage which suggests that he was beaten in battle by Caratacus, the nephew of his dead rival, but escaped capture and fled to the continent, eventually making his way to Rome where he appeared as a suppliant before Claudius in c.42AD.
CartimanduaBrigantesOne of only two British women to be mentioned in the ancient sources, namely the Annals of Tacitus, the other being Boudicca, mentioned by Dio. She was the leading noble of the Brigantian federation who was probably granted a clientship with Rome in 43AD, along with her consort Venutius of the Carvetii. During the spring of 48AD, political pressure from certain rebels within the Brigantian nobility forced Ostorius Scapula to abandon his campaign against the Ordovices in north Wales, and turn his attention to the Brigantes (Tacitus Annals XII, 32). In 51AD Cartimandua tricked and captured the Catuvellaunian warlord Caratacus, then honoured her agreement with Rome by surrendering him to Scapula, who was still governor (Tacitus Annals XII, 36). This action seems to have stirred up some resentment towards the rule of Cartimandua within the Brigantian nobility, which for a period, lurked beneath the surface of the seemingly calm tribal pool. In circa 53AD, however, Venutius divorced Cartimandua and formed a faction of his own, attacking Cartimandua's power-base and causing the new Roman governor, Aulus Didius Gallus to send a number of auxiliary cohorts to her aid (Tacitus Annals XII, 40). Cartimandua continued to rule the Brigantes for a number of years with her own armour-bearer, Vellocatus, as her consort. However, the seeds of discontent were still germinating in the ranks of the Brigantian ruling houses for another rebellion occurred during the governorship of Marcus Vettius Bolanus around 70AD. During this uprising, Cartimandua had to be rescued by an ala of Roman auxiliary cavalry sent specifically for this purpose by the governor who was occupied against the Silures in south Wales. This continuing Brigantian unrest caused the emperor Vespasian to annul the clientship of the Brigantes and for the first time, they came under the direct rule of Rome.
VellocatusBrigantesThe shield-bearer of Cartimandua, who became her lover after Venutius, her consort, divorced her some time around 55AD. He lived possibly until after c.70AD when another Brigantian revolution forced Cartimandua to seek the protection of the Roman governor, leading to the dissolution of the clientship and the advent of direct rule by Rome.
CalgacusCaledoniiThe leader of the highland tribes of Caledonia in opposition to Rome who was resoundingly beaten in 84AD at the battle of Mons Graupius by the legate, Gnaeus Julius Agricola. His address to the Caledonian host of around 30,000 men before the battle of Mons Graupius is recorded in Tacitus' Agricola.
CarviliusCantiaciOne of four 'kings of Cantium' mentioned by Caesar in his Gallic Wars. (see also; Cingetorix, Segovax and Taximagulus)
CingetorixCantiaciOne of four 'kings of Cantium' mentioned by Caesar in his Gallic Wars. (see also; Carvilius, Segovax and Taximagulus)
DubnovellaunusCantiaciPerhaps one of several kings of the Cantiaci, but certainly the first to issue inscribed coins. The styling of some of these coins is essentially Gallic, suggesting a date perhaps around 40 or 30BC. Other issues adopting Roman designs were probably produced later in the century, once again reflecting increasing contact between the south-east of the country and Roman Gaul. Towards the end of his period of rule, before the coins of Eppillus appeared on the scene in the initial years of the first century AD, other nobles issued incribed coinage in Cantium, one a Vosenios, and another possibly with the name Sa[...], though this may represent a mint mark. He could feasibly have been the second suppliant British king mentioned in the Augustan record. (see Dubnovellaunus of the Trinovantes.)
Sa[...]Cantiacisee Vosenios.
SegovaxCantiaciOne of four 'kings of Cantium' mentioned by Caesar in his Gallic Wars. (see also; Carvilius, Cingetorix and Taximagulus)
TaximagulusCantiaciOne of four 'kings of Cantium' mentioned by Caesar in his Gallic Wars. (see also; Carvilius, Cingetorix and Segovax)
VoseniosCantiaciMinted coins inscribed by Vosenios were being issued towards the end of the first century BC, following or possibly contemporary with those of Dubnovellaunus, his probable predecessor. Other coins issued during this period inscribed only with a cryptic SA could either be those of another Kentish king or they too might be of Vosenios. These letters need not refer to a personal name but could instead record a title, the site of a mint or the name of an unrecorded group of people. Vosenios departed the scene when Eppillus of the Atrebates appeared in Cantium around 15AD, probably ousted from Calleva by Verica.
VenutiusCarvetiiWas the consort of Cartimandua, queen of the Brigantes, possibly since before she became a client of Claudius in 43AD. All was not well with this arrangement seemingly, for during the governorship of Aulus Didius Gallus, sometime between 52AD and 57AD, he divorced her. Cartimandua's treacherous treatment of Caratacus in 51AD could have been one possible factor in his decision. Whatever the cause, Venutius proceeded to wage war on his ex-spouse with his own rival Carvetian faction. The new governor was forced to send several cohorts to her aid, until the forces under the able command of Venutius were eventually defeated in a decisive engagement. This story is related in Tacitus' Annals Book XII, chapter 40.
[...]CatuvellauniThis ruler succeeded Cassivellaunus around 30BC when the old adversary of Caesar died, possibly marrying a daughter of Mandubracius of the Trinovantes. He died c.20BC leaving the Catuvellaunian kingdom to his son Tasciovanus.
AdminiusCatuvellauniA son of Cunobelin, therefore brother to Togodumnus and Caratacus. He appears to have been given administrative authority over Cantium towards the end of the reign of Tiberius around 35AD, replacing the old chief Vodenos who may have recently expired. This preferential treatment over his other two sons, must mean that Adminius was the eldest of the three. An issue of silver coinage appeared at this time in east Kent bearing the inscription AMM INVS on the obverse, the letters appearing to either side of a seven eared wheatsheaf, and DVN on the reverse, probably a mint-mark, possibly DV[roverno]N. Adminius was driven from Cantium by his two brothers, apparently with the approval of his father at around the same time as his enfeeblement in c.40AD. This was presumably because of his acquired taste for things Roman, which had resulted from his governing that part of Britain closest to Gaul and thus closest to Roman influence. He escaped capture and fled to Gaul, thence to Germany where in c.41AD he sought audience with the mad Gaius Caligula and tried to persuade the emperor that Britain was 'ripe for intervention' at this time. The attempt of Gaius failed dismally, and Adminius no doubt accompanied the emperor back to Rome where he was subsequently repatriated with his homeland by the emperor Claudius in 43AD. It is possible that he was installed as the nominal governor of Cantium for his services, and possibly lived in the Villa discovered at Eccles near the crossing of the North Downs Way and the river Medway.
AmminusCatuvellaunisee Adminius.
AndocoCatuvellauniKnown only from inscriptions on coinage, where his name appears singly as 'ANDO' or 'ANDOCO', and jointly on one issue as 'TAS ANDO' in which it is assumed that his name appears with that of his overlord, Tasciovanus. The distribution of these coins suggest that Andocos or Andocoveros ruled over a territory on the western flank of the Catuvellauni, and was issuing coin towards the end of the reign of Tasciovanus (c.15BC-c.10AD) at the turn of the first century AD. Suggested variatons of his name include Andocos or Andocoveros. (see also Dias[...], Sego[...] and Rues[...].)
CaratacusCatuvellauniProbably the youngest son of the British statesman Cunobelin, and thus the younger brother of Adminius and Togodumnus. He seemed to have formed an attachment to his uncle Epaticcus, for he based his later coin issues on those of his father's brother. It is quite possible that he accompanied him during his campaigns against Verica of the Atrebates from c.25AD until his death in c.35AD. Following the enfeeblement of his father in c.40AD, he supplanted his eldest brother Adminius from his throne in Durovernon. He then joined forces with his other brother Togodumnus in c.41AD to renew the campaign against Verica of the Atrebates, who had caused the death of his beloved uncle. He fought several battles against Aulus Plautius during the invasion of 43AD before retreating to Wales, where he organised the tribes, particularly the Silures and Ordovices against Rome. During the change in Roman administration in 47AD, Caratacus led the Silures in a well-timed attack deep into the Roman-held territory of Gloucestershire. The new governor, Ostorius Scapula, spent almost the entirety of his term in office fighting against Caratacus, finally beating him in an all-out confontation in mid-Wales in c.50AD. Caratacus fled into the territory of the Brigantes in the Pennines where he appealed for help from queen Cartimandua. She betrayed and captured him, and honouring her agreement with emperor Claudius, dispatched him in chains to Scapula. He was sent in c.51AD as a captive to the emperor, where he so impressed the Senate with his defiant speech that he was allowed to live with his family in Rome.
CassivellaunusCatuvellauniThe leader of the resistance to Caesar in both of his British campaigns. Cassivellaunus possibly formed the tribe later to become known as the Catuvellauni from a federation of smaller like-minded Belgic tribes living north of the Thames, specifically to counter Caesar. The next identifiable ruler of the Catuvellauni was Tasciovanus who came to power in c.20BC, though whether he was the son or grandson of Cassivellaunus is not known. [It is possible that Cassivellaunus should be translated as 'Vellaunus of the Cassi', i.e. his tribe was the Cassi and his name was Vellaunus. It follows that the name given to the amalgamated tribe gathered under his command could mean 'the Followers1 or Smiters2 of Vellaunus'. 1 Latin caterva crowd, troop, company, flock. 2 Gaelic cath to smite.]
CunobelinCatuvellauniSon of Tasciovanus, father of Adminius, Togodumnus and Caratacus. During the last years of his father's reign, he invaded the territory of the Trinovantes and subdued them, probably prompted by the news of Rome's loss of Varus' three legions in Germany in 9AD, and therefore fairly confident that his action would go unpunished. He continued to rule over the Trinovantes from Camulodunum by dint of his own resources and retained his seat of government there when he succeeded to the Catuvellaunian throne upon the death of Tasciovanus in circa 10AD. He became 'the first British statesman,' and through diplomatic means, probably had his kingship over the joint Catuvellaunian/Trinovantian kingdom ratified by Rome, for some of his later coinage bears the title 'REX'. He continued to rule the combined tribes from Camulodunum for many years, and his capital became the focal point of British politics, learning and trade. Suddenly, in c.40AD, he was enfeebled, possibly due to a stroke. Subsequent military actions by his sons Togodumnus and Caratacus, who swept throughout south-east Britain deposing first their own brother Adminius (who had pro-Roman tendancies) then their old adversary Verica of the Atrebates, brought the attentions of Rome. Cunobelin died shortly before the coming of Rome in c.42AD.
Dias[...]CatuvellauniA sub-king of the overlord Tasciovanus (c.15BC-c.10AD), is known only from a single coinage issue bearing the inscription TASC DIAS. (see also Andoco, Sego[...] and Rues[...].)
EpaticcusCatuvellauniA son of Tasciovanus, therefore probably the younger brother of Cunobelin, and apparently a favoured uncle of Caratacus. His coinage issues, from which we know his name and his filiation, bears the inscription TAS CIF to either side of a corn ear on the obverse, and a galloping horse and rider with the inscription EPATICCV round the edge on the reverse. The distribution of his coinage leads us to believe that he expanded the territory of his tribe at the expense of the Atrebatean king Verica, and installed himself at his capital, Calleva in circa 25AD. He continued to take Verica's lands to west and south until his death, probably on campaign in c.35AD, after which his expansionistic policies were continued by his nephews Caratacus and Togodumnus, probably in the late 30's AD.
Rues[...]CatuvellauniPossibly a sub-king of the overlord Tasciovanus (c.15BC-c.10AD), is known only from a single coinage issue bearing the inscription RVES. (see also Andoco, Dias[...] and Sego[...].)
Sego[...]CatuvellauniApparently a sub-king of the overlord Tasciovanus (c.15BC-c.10AD), is known only from a single coinage issue bearing the inscription TASCIO SEGO. (see also Andoco, Dias[...] and Rues[...].
TasciovanusCatuvellauniWas the son of Addedomaros, whom he succeeded in c.20BC, and the father of Cunobelin and Epaticcus. He was the first Catuvellaunian monarch to issue inscribed coins, bearing the VER[ulamium] mint marks. He was also the first to renew hostilities towards the Trinovantes, flouting the long-standing agreement between Caesar and his own grandfather Cassivellaunus. Between 10 and 15BC he issued a series of coins bearing the mint mark CAMV[lodunum], indicating that for a time at least, he took posession of the Trinovantian capital, but it appears that he withdrew following the advent of Augustus in Gaul. His later coin issues bear the inscription TASCIO / RIGON where the word 'rigon' is usually translated as 'king'. If this is the case, it is probable that Tasciovanus did not have a treaty with Rome, otherwise he would have used the title 'REX'. A number of coins bear joint names; TASC and DIAS, TASCIO and SEGO, TAS and ANDO, while ANDO, ANDOCO and RVES also appear alone. The existence of these coin issues supports the suggestion that the Catuvellauni were originally a federation of like-minded Belgic tribes. Another alternative is that some, at least, of these names may be mint marks. He was succeeded by his brilliant son Cunobelin in circa 10AD.
TogodumnusCatuvellauniA son of Cunobelin, and brother to both Caratacus and Adminius. While his father ruled the joint Catuvellaunian/Trinovantian kingdom from Camulodunum, and his elder brother Adminius governed Cantium from Durovernum (annexed in c.30AD), Togodumnus was given administrative authority over the Catuvellaunian heartlands and based at the old capital of Verulamium. This happened sometime around 35AD, following the death of his uncle Epaticcus who had previously secured the western borders of the kingdom by his occupation of the Atrebatic capital, Calleva. When Cunobelin was suddenly enfeebled in c.40AD, Togodumnus supported the expulsion of Adminius from Cantium by his younger brother Caratacus. Following his fathers death around 42AD and his subsequent accession to the throne, he empowered Caratacus to resume the campaign against the Atrebates, who eventually forced Verica to flee to the continent. He fought at least two major engagements against Aulus Plautius in 43AD and was either killed during the battle of the Medway, or died from his wounds shortly afterwards.
Ast[...]Corieltauvisee Aun[...].
Asu[...]Corieltauvisee Esup[...].
Aun[...]CorieltauviThe coins inscribed AVN COST/AST probably denote the first of the dual magistracies of the Coreltauvi following those issued by Vep[...]. They were issued around c.20AD and are found throughout the canton. The next issue of coins after Aun[...]/Cost[...] were those of Esup[...]/Rasu[...].
Cartivel[...]CorieltauviThe name Cartivel[ios] or Cartivel[launus] appears in conjunction with that of Volisios, on issues apparently contemporary with others bearing the names of two more Corieltauvian nobles, Dumnocoveros and Dumnovellau[nos]. All of these coins wese issued in c.45AD and appear to have circulated in an area to the north of the canton and on the north bank of the Humber, in what is usually taken to be the territory of the Parisii.
Cost[...]Corieltauvisee Aun[...].
Dumno[...]CorieltauviThe name of this noble appears on the famous issue inscribed DVMNO TIGIR SENO, and its prominence feasibly denoted that he was the most senior of the three magistrates seemingly ruling over the Corieltauvi in c.40AD, the other nobles mentioned, Tigir[...] and Seno[...] were in all likelyhood subservient. It is possible that the name of this king also appears on one of two later coin issues in association with the overlord Volisios, as either Dumnocoveros or Dumnovellau[nos].
DumnocoverosCorieltauvisee Dumno[...] and Volisios.
Dumnovellau[nos]Corieltauvisee Dumno[...] and Volisios.
Esup[...]CorieltauviThe coins inscribed ESVP ASV or ESVP RASV were issued by the dual magistrates of the Corieltauvi in c.30AD. These issues were possibly preceeded by those of AVN COST/AST and followed by the triple issue of DVMNO TIGIR SENO.
Rasu[...]Corieltauvisee Esup[...].
Seno[...]Corieltauvisee Dumno[...].
Tigir[os]Corieltauvisee Dumno[...].
Vep[...]CorieltauviThis ruler was possibly the first of the Corieltauvi to issue coins bearing inscriptions, notably; VEP, VEP CORF (possibly meaning Vep[...] the son of Cor[...]) and VEP OCI[.]ES. These coins appear at the beginning of the first century AD, and are found throughout the tribal territory. The latter of these three issues may bear the name of a subservient or co-ruler, OCI[.]ES, and it should be noted that with the exception of the issues inscribed VEP only, all of the Corieltauvian coinage bears at least two inscribed names. Whether Vep[...] first started this trend of dual - or in some cases, triple - magistracies is not known.
VolisiosCorieltauviThe name of this ruler appears in conjunction with that of three other nobles, Dumnocoveros, Dumnovellau[nos] and Cartivel[ios], each on separate coinage issues minted around 45AD. This is unprecedented within the tribe, who usually minted coins bearing the names of two - or in one case, three - magistrates. It appears that Volisios became the overlord of the Corieltauvi possibly just prior to the Roman invasion, and issued coin bearing the names of his three lieutenants who were to govern separate quarters of the tribal territory. In the face of the Roman advance it would appear that Volisios moved his court northwards into the land of the Parisii, and that his people continued to prosper in this region for several more years.
VirocoCornoviiThe name of this Cornovian noble is derived purely from the notion that the later tribal capital of the Cornovii was originally named 'Viroconon' or 'Viroco's town', possibly after the leader of the Cornovian resistance to the Roman advance, who died with his followers during the storming of the Wrekin Hillfort, and that the original British name for the settlement was later Romanised to Viroconium [Cornoviorum] (i.e. "The town of Viroco of the Cornovii").
Anted[...]DobunniLeader of both north and south Dobunnic territories during the first decades of the first century AD. He seemed to have brought together the northern and southern factions of the tribe under a single banner for the first time since the division of the tribe in the latter half of the first century BC, during the conflict between Bodvoc and Corio. This division was seemingly promoted by their respective sons Catti[...] and Comux[...]. Anted[...] of the Dobunni appears to have been succeeded by another single Dobunnic monarch, Eisu[...], possibly his own son, in c.30AD.
BodvocDobunniIssued coin during the last decades of the first century BC. It is probable that he ruled over the northern part of the Dobunni tribe, as all of his coins have been found in that region, his contemporary, Corio appeared to have ruled over the southern part of the tribe, though some of his coins have been found in the northen territory. Whether the division of the Dobunnic kingdom was an amicable arrangement between two legitimate sons of the old king or was the result of an internecine war between members of opposing noble families, will probably never be known. Coinage distribution evidence shows that Corio possibly ruled over the entire Dobunnic kingdom for a while at least, before Bodvoc took over in the north. It is possible that Bodvoc was succeeded by Catti[...] in the north, while Corio was replaced by Comux[...] in the southern territories. A variant of his name may have been Bodvoccus or Boduoccus.
Catti[...]DobunniPossibly inherited the northern Dobunnic lands from Bodvoc around the turn of the millennium, therefore contemporary with Comux[...] who appeared to have succeeded Bodvoc's old rival Corio in the southern territories of the Dobunni.
Comux[...]DobunniPossibly succeeded Corio as the king of the southern Dobunnic territories around the turn of the millennium, therefore contemporary with Catti[...] who inherited the northern Dobunnic kingdom from Bodvoc.
CorioDobunniKing of the southern Dobunni in Gloucester towards the end of the first century BC. Although his coins are found throughout the Dobunnic territories, they are clustered mainly in the south, while the northern lands appeared to have been under the control of another Dobunnic overlord, Bodvoc, who issued his own coins. It is possible that the splitting of the Dobunnic territories occurred during his reign. Corio was succeeded at around the turn of the millennium by Comux[...].
Eisu[...]DobunniIt is possible that this Dobunnic ruler was the successor to the united Dobunnic throne following the re-merger of the tribe by Anted[...]. If this was the case, then he came to power around c.30AD, and was probably chieftain during the invasion campaigns of Plautius in 43AD, though whether he was leader of the faction of the Dobunni that surrendered to Plautius at Durovernon is unknown. It is equally possible, however, that Eisu was ruler of the entire Dobunnic kingdom about sixty years earlier in 30BC, which could feasibly make him the father of either Bodvoc and/or Corio. This variance is also apparent in the history of another Dobunnic monarch, Inam.

Many thanks to Chris Martin for the Eisu pic.
Ariconium Eisu coin found by Chris Martin
Dobunnic Gold Stater of 'Eisu'
Found near Ariconium.
Inam[...]DobunniAppeared to rule over the entire Dobunnic territory. Whether he ruled the kingdom prior to it being divided and shared by Bodvoc and Corio or after the tribe was reunited under the kingship of Anted[...], will probaby never be known with any certainty.
Aesu[...]IceniAesu[...] was a contemporary of Anted[ios], who was the nominal leader of the Iceni during the invasion of 43AD. He possibly represented a rival faction within the Icenian nobility who were opposed on principle to the appointment by Rome of a single tribal representative. He issued his own inscribed coinage around 45AD, and was joined in this apparent show of displeasure by another contemporary Icenian leader, Saenu[...], who also issued inscribed coinage during the clientship of Anted[ios] in opposition to Rome. In 47AD, this resentment turned to violence when the Iceni, possibly led by Aesu[...], Anted[ios] and/or Saenu[...], took the opportunity of the change in the governorship, to rebel against Roman interference. All three Icenian nobles probably died during the fighting or were put to death by Marcus Ostorius soon afterwards, as Prasutagus was made Client-King.
Anted[ios]IceniAnted[ios] (only the first five letters appears on his coinage, the ending -ios is conjectural) succeeded Can[...] in c.25AD as leader of the Iceni, and should not be confused with Anted[...] of the Dobunnic tribe of Gloucestershire. He took no active part in the opposition to the Roman invasion of 43AD and was subsequently made a client of Rome. He produced his first coins marked ANTED probably in commemoration of this honour. This action possibly stirred up the Icenian nobility who were opposed to the rule of a single leader, and this prompted Antedios to issue a generic coinage inscribed with ECEN, probably representing the name of the tribe instead of his own. This seemed not to appease at least two of the Icenian nobles, Aesu[...] and Saenu[...] who minted their own inscribed coinage sometime around 45AD. It is probable that Anted[ios] was involved in the Icenian War of 47AD, possibly precipitating the violence through his own death, though this is pure speculation. He must have lost his life by the end of the war however, for following the supression of the tribe by the son of the new governor, Marcus Ostorius, none of these leaders are heard of again, and the clientship of the kingdom of the Iceni passed to the pro-Roman leader Prasutagus.
BoudiccaIceniOne of two British women to be mentioned by the ancient sources. She was the wife of king Prasutagus who was granted the kingship of the Iceni, along with clientship of Rome after the Icenian war of 47AD. Following her husbands death in c.59AD her kingdom was pillaged by the imperial procurator Decianus Catus, and when she made complaint, she was personally flogged and her daughters raped. Indignant at her treatment she fomented a rebellion within her tribe and, joined by their neighbouring tribe the Trinovantes, plundered the Romano-British towns of Camulodunum, Verulamium and Londinium before being beaten in a pitched battle with the forces of the governor, Suetonius Paullinus, near Manduessedum in the midlands.
Can[...]IceniIssued the first inscribed Icenian coins, bearing the letters CAN DVRO, the basic design of which was based on coins from Cantium. The exact meaning of the DVRO part of the inscription is unknown, but is possibly a mint-mark. He was succeeded in c.25AD by Anted[ios], who was later to become a client of Rome in 43AD.
PrasutagusIceniWas the husband of the most famous of British women, Boudicca. He was made client of Rome and given kingship over the entire Icenian tribe following the Icenian War in 47AD, when the inter-tribal struggles between Anted[ios], who had been recognised by Rome, and the factions of Aesu[...] and Saenu[...], escalated into armed revolt against Rome, which was soundly crushed. One unique issue of his coins bears the inscription SUB RI PRASTO ESICO FECIT - 'under king Prasto, Esico made me', which not only gives us the name of the king but also his moneyer or chamberlain. His death in c.59AD was to spark the rebellion led by his wife, Boudicca, which was to end with the complete subjugation of the Iceni.
Saenu[...]IceniSaenu[...] issued inscribed coinage in c.45AD contemporary with those of his Icenian rival kings Anted[ios], who was nominal king over all the Iceni in the eyes of Rome, and Aesu[...], who, like Saenu[..] possibly resented the preferential treatment that Anted[ios] was afforded by Rome. He was presumably one of the leading lights during the Icenian War of 47AD and was in all likelyhood killed either during the fighting or in retribution by Rome immediately afterwards.
CogidumnusRegnensesKing of the Regnenses of West Sussex, became a client king of Rome, taking the name Tiberius Claudius Cogidumnus. Possibly a relation of the Atrebatean noble Verica, who assisted Claudius during the invasion of 43AD and feasibly recommended him to Rome as his heir.
Cogidubnus is discussed on the Fishbourne RBO page.
AddedomarosTrinovantesWas the next identifiable ruler of the Trinovantes after Mandubracius in Caesar's time, though it is not known whether any others preceeded him. Almost immediately upon his succession to the throne sometime between 25 to 15BC, he moved his centre of government from Braughing on the eastern headwaters of the river Lea to a new site on the east coast which he named 'the fort of the war god Camulos', or Camulodunum. It is possible that he either warred with or was client to Tasciovanus, for in c.15-10BC the Catuvellaunian monarch produced a coin issue with the mint mark CAMV[lodunum]. He reigned for about a decade or so before being succeeded by his son Dubnovellaunus in c.10-5BC. [A possible scenario: Mandubracius died intestate or leaving no heirs; the family of Addedomaros, possibly championed by his father, succeeded to the throne after a brief struggle between the remaining Trinovantian noble houses; the Catuvellaunian king Tasciovanus later claimed that he was the true heir to the thone (maybe his mother was the daughter of Mandubracius) and went to war on that pretext; thanks primarily to the interest of Rome, Tasciovanus withdrew and Addedomaros resumed the throne.]
DubnovellaunusTrinovantesSucceeded Addedomaros to the Trinovantian throne in c.10-5BC and ruled for several years before being supplanted by Cunobelin of the Catuvellauni. Like his contemporary Tincommius of the Atrebates, he appeared as a suppliant to Augustus and paid tribute on the Capitol in Rome before 7AD. He should not be confused with Dubnovellaunus of the Cantiaci.
MandubraciusTrinovantesWas regarded by Caesar as the most powerful of the British tribal monarchs in 54BC. Nothing further is known about him. The next identifiable ruler of the Trinovantes was Addedomaros who started his rule from c.20-15BC, but whether he was the son or grandson of Mandubracius is not known; indeed, it is possible that Mandubracius was the last of his line, and that his throne was taken by, or given to the family of Addedomaros.
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esup rasu
Other possible names (in progress)