Cappuck Fort

Fort

The Roman fort at Cappuck, of which nothing now remains visible on the surface of the ground, stood on the E bank of the Oxnam Water, overlooking the point where Dere Street crossed that stream, 11 miles SE of Newstead. Since there is no good outlook in any direction the fort must be regarded as a bridgehead post.

RIB2119 - Building inscription of the Twentieth Legion

[...]
X[...]
F[..]
The Twentieth Legion, Valeria Victrix, built (this).
No commentary.

¹ P.S.A. Scot., xlvi. In so small a fort, the ratio 200 to 250 men per acre no longer holds, for obvious reasons. ” (Collingwood, pp.32-4)

There are three inscriptions on stone recorded in the R.I.B. from Cappuck, all of which are shown and translated on this page; an altar to Jupiter dedicated by an auxiliary garrison unit (RIB 2117 infra), another altarstone on which the name of the deity has been lost (RIB 2118 infra), and a building inscription recording the legionary unit responsible for the fort’s construction (RIB 2119 supra).

RIB2117 - Altar dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus

I O M VE[...]
ILATIO RETO
RVM GAESAT
Q C A IVL
SEVER TRIB
To Jupiter, Best and Greatest, the detachment of Raetian Spearmen, under the acting command of Julius Severinus, their tribune, (set this up).
RIB 2117 and 2118 have been brought from some site which need not be so far from Jedburgh as Cappuck (6.4 km. to the east) or the crossing of the Teviot. There may have been a fort at, or near, Jedburgh in the third-century patrol system (see RCAHM Roxburghshire 31).

RIB2118 - Altar co-dedicated by Gaius Quintius Severus

[...]
COH I FID VARDVL
C R ↀ EQ ET G
QVINTIVS SEVERVS
TRIB COH EIVSDEM
DOM CAMIL RA
VENNA
V S L L M
... the First Loyal Cohort of Vardullians, Roman citizens, a thousand strong, part-mounted, and Gaius Quintius Severus, tribune of the same cohort, of the Camilian voting-tribe, from Ravenna, gladly, willingly, and deservedly fulfilled their vow.
See RIB 2117 for a note on the dating of the stone.

The pottery evidence from the Cappuck fort shows occupation throughout the first and second centuries. There are two sherds of South Gaulish Form 29 dated to the Agricolan period, three pieces of South Gaulish Form 37 dated to Flavian-Trajanic times, and Antonine occupation is attested by three potters stamps all represented on single sherds: Casurius Form 37, Criciro Form 37 and Ruffus Form 33. Another single piece of South Gaulish Form 27 samian bore the stamp ]OF, which cannot be identified.

The Temporary Marching Camps

There are several temporary marching camps in the close proximity of the fort, two to the north, two to the west and another to the south, all in the Borders Region (at NT6820). These are all dealt with on a separate page for Ulston Moor.

References for Cappuck

  • The Roman Occupations of Scotland by B.R. Hartley in Britannia iii (1972) pp.1-55;
  • The Roman Inscriptions of Britain by R.G. Collingwood and R.P. Wright (Oxford 1965);
  • The Archaeology of Roman Britain by R.G. Collingwood (Methuen, London, 1930).

Roman Roads near Cappuck

NW (12) to Newstead (Newstead, Borders) SE (10) to Chew Green (Northumberland) Dere Street: NW (7) to Maxton Dere Street: NW (8) to St Boswells