Banna (Birdoswald)

Fort and Wall Fort

Banna – The Peak – The name of the Birdoswald fort has been in dispute for some considerable time, the argument being compounded by discrepancies in the Roman maps of the period. The name of this fort was either Banna or Camboglanna, depending on which itinerary you used. The name now favoured by Roman historians is Banna, a word (Welsh/Gaelic) meaning ‘peak’ or ‘horn’, related to the Old Welsh word ban and the Old Irish word benn. This topic is discussed further on the RBO page for Castlesteads.

The Epigraphy of Banna

There are sixty-two inscribed stones recorded in the RIB for Birdoswald, comprising: forty-four altars and other votive stones, ten building inscriptions, cohort and centurial stones, four tombstones and four other indesignated texts. These include fifteen inscriptions all dateable to the third century.

The Dateable Latin Inscriptions from Birdoswald

RIB # (clickable) : 1910
Date: 198-209AD
Description: B.I. of emperor Septimius Severus and his son Caracalla
RIB # (clickable) : 1909
Date: 205-208AD
Description: B.I. of emperor Septimius Severus and his sons Caracalla and Geta by Cohors I Aelia Dacorum and Cohors I Thracum
RIB # (clickable) : 1911
Date: 212-217AD
Description: altar to emperor Caracalla
RIB # (clickable) : 1892
Date: 212-222AD?
Description: altar to I O M by Cohors I Aelia Dacorum Antoniniana
RIB # (clickable) : 1914
Date: c.219AD
Description: B.I. of governor Modius Julius by Cohors I Aelia Dacorum
RIB # (clickable) : 1896
Date: 235-238AD
Description: altar to I O M D by Cohors I Aelia Dacorum during Maximian’s reign
RIB # (clickable) : 1929a
Date: 235-238AD
Description: altar to I O M D by Cohors I Aelia Dacorum during Maximian’s reign
RIB # (clickable) : 1922
Date: 236AD
Description: damaged B.I. erected during the consulship of Maximinus and Africanus
RIB # (clickable) : 1875
Date: 237AD
Description: altar to I O M by Cohors I Aelia Dacorum during the consulship of Perpetuus
RIB # (clickable) : 1893
Date: 238-244AD
Description: altar to I O M by Cohors I Aelia Dacorum Gordiana
RIB # (clickable) : 1883
Date: 260-268AD
Description: altar to I O M by Cohors I Aelia Dacorum Postumiana
RIB # (clickable) : 1886
Date: 260-268AD
Description: altar to I O M by Cohors I Aelia Dacorum Postumiana
RIB # (clickable) : 1885
Date: 271-274AD
Description: altar to Cocidius and I O M by Cohors I Aelia Dacorum Tetricianorum
RIB # (clickable) : 1929b
Date: 276-282AD
Description: altar to I O M by Cohors I Aelia Dacorum Probiana
RIB # (clickable) : 1912
Date: 293-305AD
Description: B.I. of emperors Diocletian and Maximian

RIB1922 - Fragmentary dedication

[...]CM[...]
[...]IMVS DI[...]
[...]ES A SOLO FE[  ...]
[...] ET AFRICANO C[...]
... built from ground-level ... in the consulship of ... Maximinus and Africanus.
The consulship of the emperor Maximinus and of Africanus in a.d. 236 would fit.

Numismatic Evidence from Birdoswald

Of the 58 coins recovered from Birdoswald, the majority (51) were recorded during excavations in 1929, the rest (7) are casual finds recorded either in 1860, 1931 or 1934. The coins range from 5 coppers of Trajan (inc. R.I.C. 489) to 3 copper coins dating post-375. The most notable are; 6 of Antoninus Pius (inc. a single R.I.C. 417 silver issue), 3 coppers of Constantinian and 3 of Constantius II also 3 ‘Fel Temp Reparatio‘. Other coins were recovered during excavations 1987-1990 but details are not known.

The Fort(s) at Birdoswald

In 1928 it was found that the Vallum which curves round the southern side of the Birdoswald fort has a circuit which suggests that it was so shaped as to avoid a fort placed on the Wall which was considerably smaller than the later fort whose outline can nowadays be seen. This probably means that the fort was expanded in size sometime after the Vallum was built, during the construction of which, the Vallum appears to have been back-filled. This seems to have occurred very soon after the Vallum was originally completed.

RIB1917 - Centurial stone of Congaonius Candidus

𐆛 CONGAONI
CANDIDI P XXX
The century of Congaonius Candidus (built) 30 feet.
The name Congaonius seems to be unmatched.For Congonius as cognomen see CIL iii 1203, and as nomen CIL v 2413.For Conconius as a cognomen see CIL viii 19099.For other building-stones which cite the length of Wall built in the sector just east of Birdoswald see JRS xlviii (1958) 152 no. 10 (e), xlix (1959) 136 no. 5 (a), both citing p xxx.

RIB1910 - Fragmentary dedication to Emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla

[...   ]
[...]ERO
[... ]CI ET
[...]
[...]
For the Emperor-Caesars Lucius Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax and Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius, both Augusti ..
No commentary.

RIB1911 - Altar dedicated to Caracalla

PRO SALVTE
D N MAXIMI AC
FORT IMP CAES
M AVREL [...]
[   ] AVG [..]OC
[...]V[...]VST
[...]O AEDIF
For the welfare of our most great and most mighty Lord the Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Augustus ... built ..
The emperor is Caracalla, a.d. 212-17.7. For aedif(icavit) see RIB 978.

The first fort in this area was built astride the turf wall and was itself of turf-and-timber construction, intended to house a force of 500 cavalry. By the time the Wall in this area was replaced in stone, the garrison had been changed to a cohort of infantry, and in consequence the Wall was realigned to incorporate the northern defences of the fort, to conform to the usual plan for an infantry fort on the Wall. This divergence from the original line has meant that a section of the original turf wall has been preserved for about 1½ miles (2km) to the west of Birdoswald.

RIB1912 - Dedication to Diocletian and Maximian

[...] N DIOC[... ] ET
M[... ]IANO INVICTIS AVG ET
CONSTANTIO ET MAXIMIANO
N C SVB V P AVR ARPAGIO PR
PRAETOR QVOD ERAT HVMO COPERT
ET IN LABE CONL ET PRINC ET BAL REST
CVRANT FL MARTINO CENT PP C [...]
For our Lords Diocletian and Maximian, Invincible, both Augusti, and for Constantius and Maximianus, most noble Caesars, under His Perfection Aurelius Arpagius, the governor, the ... Cohort restored the commandant's house, which had been covered with earth and had fallen into ruin, and the Headquarters Building and the bath-house, under the charge of Flavius Martinus, centurion in command.
Anderson, JRS 22 (1932) 29 discusses the term praeses and dates this ‘not earlier than a.d. 297'. Birley (in Askew Coinage 82) accepts 297. The joint rule of these emperors terminated in a.d. 305.For a discussion on the division of civil and military powers in this period see Seston, Dioclétien et la Tétrarchie (1946) 313 on AE 1942-3, 81.

A building inscription recovered from the interior of the fort in 1929 records restoration work undertaken at the turn of the fourth century by an unknown unit (vide RIB 1912 supra). This is a very important find because it provides conclusive evidence that the praetorium or commanding officer’s house in an auxiliary fort was a separate and distinct entity from the principia or headquarters building.

RIB1916 - Building inscription of the Sixth Legion

LEG VI
VIC P F
F
The Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis built this.
Presumably it came from Birdoswald fort or from one of the milecastles near Birdoswald. Addenda from RIB+add. (1995): Brit. 21 (1990), 289-92, points out that this belongs stylistically to a group of stones which can be associated with the rebuilding of the Turf Wall between milecastles 49 and 54. The others are RIB 1934, 1938, 1966, 1967 and 1968.

RIB1880 - Altar dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus

I O M
COH I AEL DA
COR C C A IVL
MARCELLI
NVS 𐆛 LEG II
AVG
To Jupiter, Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians (set this up) under the acting command of Julius Marcellinus, centurion of the Second Legion Augusta.
Presumably this was an altar intentionally buried beside the parade-ground of Birdoswald fort (see Richmond, Roman Britain (1955) 202) R.P.W.For the formula c · c · a see RIB 1876.

RIB1907 - Altar dedicated by a centurion of the Sixth Legion

[...]
V C [...]
L VEREIVS
FORTVNA
TVS 𐆛 LEG
V[  ...]
... Lucius Vereius Fortunatus, centurion of the Sixth Legion ..
For the date of the Anon. folio see RIB 1898.

The Garrison Units of Camboglanna

The identity of the cavalry regiment which garrisoned the original turf fort is not known, and likewise, the infantry regiment who first occupied the replacement stone fort, although it has been suggested that the latter may have been a detachment of the First Cohort of Tungrians, a one-thousand strong mixed-unit of cavalry and infantry who are known from building inscriptions at Camboglanna (Castlesteads, Cumbria; vide RIB 1981 et al.). This unit is too large to be housed either at Birdoswalds or the nearby fort at Castlesteads, though it is possible that the unit was divided between these two forts during the Hadrianic period.

RIB1909 - Dedication to Emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla by the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians

IMP CAES L
SEPT SEVERO PIO
PERT ET M AVR A[...]O
NINO AVG ET P SEP
GETAE NOB CAES HOR
REVM FECER COH I AEL
DAC ET I TRACVM C R SVB
ALFENO SENECIONE COS
PER AVREL IVLIANVM TR
For the Emperor-Caesars Lucius Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax and Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, both Augusti, and for Publius Septimius Geta, most noble Caesar, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians and the First Cohort of Thracians, Roman citizens, built the granary under Alfenus Senecio, the consular governor, through the agency of Aurelius Julianus, the tribune.
This falls within the governorship of L. Alfenus Senecio, 205 to about 208 (Birley in Askew Coinage 81, JRS 51 (1961) 192 no. 4).For Aurelius Julianus see RIB 1919.

The first positively dateable evidence recording the name of a Birdoswald garrison unit is a building inscription recovered from the interior of the fort (RIB 1909, dated: 205-208AD), which places Cohors Primae Thracum Civium Romanorum here at the beginning of the third century. This unit was a mixed regiment of infantry and cavalry recruited from amongst the war-like tribes of the Roman province of Thrace (modern Bulgaria). The building inscription is shared with the third-century garrison unit Cohors I Aelia Dacorum and perhaps indicated building repairs conducted immediately prior to the fort changing hands.

RIB1905 - Altar dedicated to Silvanus

DEO SANCTO
SILVANO VE
NATORES
BANNIESS
To the holy god Silvanus the hunters of Banna (set this up).
For Banniens(es) assimilated to Banniess(es) see RIB 1700 (Vindolanda) Vindolandesses. Banna is Birdoswald, not Bewcastle, 9.7 km. north-west of Birdoswald, as once believed, (see introduction to Bewcastle).For legionary venatores, who hunted for wild animals to form a food-supply, see Domaszewski Rangordnung 46, CIL iii 7449.

Cohors Primae Aelia Dacorum – The First Cohort of Aelian Daci

RIB1914 - Dedication-slab

SVB MODIO IV
LIO LEG AVG PR
PR COH I AEL DC
CVI PRAEEST M
CL MENANDER
TRIB
Under Modius Julius, emperor's propraetorian legate, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians (built this) under the command of Marcus Claudius Menander, the tribune.
Modius Julius was governor of Lower Britain in a.d. 219 (Birley in Askew Coinage 82). The earlier portion of the text, recording the names and titles of the emperor and the structure, must have come on a corresponding slab on the double gateway. Cf. RIB 1706 (Vindolanda). Addenda from RIB+add. (1995): For a discussion of the Dacian sword also seen on RIB 1909, see Coulston, Arch. Ael. 5th Ser. 9 (1981), 348-51 with Pl. XI.

The third and fourth century garrison of Birdoswald was undoubtedly Cohors I Aelia Dacorum Milliaria, a one-thousand strong infantry regiment from Dacia, a Roman province on the north bank of the Lower Danube. Their presence is confirmed by epigraphic evidence recovered from the interior of the fort itself (vide infra).

RIB1872 - Altar dedicated to Cocidius

DEO COCIDIO
COH I AELIA
[...    ]
[... ]NTIVS VALERIANVS
[...    ]
To the god Cocidius the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, under the command of Terentius Valerianus, tribune, willingly and deservedly fulfilled its vow.
No commentary.

RIB1904 - Dedication to the Standards and to the Divinity of the Emperor

SIGNIS
ET N AV[  ...  ]
AEL [...]
To the Standards and to the Divinities of the Emperor the First Aelian Cohort ..
No commentary.
“For Jupiter Best and Greatest, the First Cohort of Aelian Dacians, commanded by the tribune Ammonius Victorinus [made this].”
“[…] the First Cohort of Aelian Daci, who are commanded by the tribune Ammonius Victorinus.”
(RIB 1874; altarstone)
(RIB 1906; base)

The unit with the most epigraphic evidence at the Birdoswalds fort is Cohors Primae Aelia Dacorum, which is attested on thirty-one inscribed stones out of a total of sixty-two which have been recovered to date. These texts may be broken down as follows; there are twenty-four altars dedicated to Iupitter Optimus Maximus (RIB 1874-1894, 1896, 1929a/b), nine of which can be dated to the third century, two building inscriptions (RIB 1909, dated: 205-208AD, shared with Cohors I Thracum; 1914, dated: c.219AD), a statue base dedicated to the ‘Standards’ (RIB1904), an altar to Cocidius (RIB1872), another altar to an unknown god (RIB1906), a single centurial stone (RIB1918) and the tombstone of a soldier (RIB1921). This evidence all points to extended residence of the unit at the fort over several generations, with sons following in their father’s footsteps serving as soldiers in the First Cohort of Dacians.

RIB1918 - Centurial stone of Decius Saxa

𐆛 DECI SAX
COH I DAC
The century of Decius Saxa of the First Cohort of Dacians (built this).
No commentary.

RIB1921 - Funerary inscription for Septimus

[...]SPA SPTIMO I[...] N
XXXX I XVIII COH I AE
LIA DACORVM
H F C
To ... Septimus (who) lived 40 years (and) served 18 (years) in the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians his heir had this set up.
No commentary.
Tribunus cohortis primae Aeliae Dacorum, Amboglanna
“The tribune of the First Cohort of Aelian Daci at Amboglanna
(Notitia Dignitatum xl.44; 4th/5th C.)

In this reference we see that Cohors Primae Dacorum is identified as the late-4th century garrison of Camboglanna, which returns us to the problem outlined at the start of this web-page. There are two solutions here; either the First Cohort of Dacians were moved to the fort at Castlesteads, for which we have no corroborative epigraphic evidence, or there has been a scribal error at sometime in antiquity, perhaps made when making a copy of an earlier master document.

The Martial Gods of Roman Birdoswalds

The forty-four altars and other votive stones are mainly dedicated to the martial gods: there are twenty-four dedications to Iupitter Optimus Maximus the chief deity of the Roman pantheon (I O M; RIB 1874-1896 inclusive, and 1929a/b), many of which are dateable and are discussed below, four more altars are devoted to the Roman war god Mars (altarstones RIB 1898-1900; undefined stone 1901) and another two to the Germanic war god Cocidius (RIB 1872; 1885, shared with I O M, dated: 270-273AD). There is also a very interesting statue base dedicated to Signis or ‘The Standards’ (RIB 1904 supra), which proves that the Roman soldiers actually worshipped thier military colours.

Altarstones Dedicated to the War God Mars

“To the god Mars, the First Cohort of Aelian Daci have placed this votive offering with their tribune.”
“To the god Mars Augustus […]”
(RIB 1898; altarstone)
(RIB 1900; altarstone)
“To Mars the Father.”
“To the god Mars and to Victory, Aurelius Maximus, took up this sacred undertaking himself,¹ willingly and deservedly fulfilling a vow.”
(RIB 1901)
(RIB 1899; altarstone)
  1. Based on the expansion S[acrum] S[umpto] S[uo].

Iupitter Optimus Maximus

The long-standing garrison unit of Birdoswalds, Cohors Primae Aelia Dacorum, seemingly had the regimental tradition of dedicating a new altar to the god Jupiter Best and Greatest every time a new commander was appointed. The unit also declared itself loyal to the emperor of the time by adopting the emperor’s name as a regimental title. A by-product of this is that many of the Birdoswald Jupiter altarstones may be dated.

RIB1875 - Altar dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus

I O M
[...]H I AEL DAC[... ] C PEST
[...]VRELIVS FAS
[...]VS TRIB
PERPETVO
COS
To Jupiter, Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians (set this up) under the command of Aurelius Faustus, the tribune, in the consulship of Perpetuus.
6. Perpetuus and Cornelianus were consuls in a.d. 237. The name of the second consul seems to have been omitted by mistake.

RIB1883 - Altar dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus

I O M
COH I AEL DAC
POSTVMI[...]
C P MARC
GALLICVS
TRIB
To Jupiter, Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, styled Postumiana, (set this up) under the command of Marcius Gallicus, tribune.
For the same tribune see RIB 1882. Addenda from RIB+add. (1995): 3.  For Postumiana [a.d. 259-68] cf. RIB 1886 with note.

RIB1885 - Altar dedicated to Cocidius and Jupiter Optimus Maximus

Primary
To the god Cocidius ..
Secondary
To Jupiter, Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, styled Tetrician, (set this up) under the command of Pomponius Desideratus ..., the tribune ..
3. Tetricianorum: a.d. 270-3.

RIB1886 - Altar dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus

I O M
COH I AEL
DACORV[...]
POSTVM[...]
ANA C P
PROB AV
GENDVS
TRIB
To Jupiter, Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, styled Postumiana, (set this up) under the command of Probius Augendus, the tribune.
4.  Postumiana: Postumus was emperor a.d. 259-68 (Birley Cumb. Westm. AAST 2nd Ser. xxxvi (1936) 4, Roman Army (1953), 61). 6.  Prob(ilius (?)) Hueb.; Prob(ius) Birley (Cumb. Westm. AAST 2nd Ser. xxxvi (1936) 6, Roman Army, 62). For this nomen see Probia Iustina, CIL xiii 7917 (ILS 4754) R.P.W.

RIB1892 - Altar dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus

I O M
COH I AELI[...]
DAC ANTO
[...]
To Jupiter, Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, styled Antoniniana, (set this up) ..
No commentary.

RIB1893 - Altar dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus

I O [...]
COH I AEL
DAC GORDI
ANA [.] C PEST
[...]
To Jupiter, Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, styled Gordiana, under the command of ..
No commentary.

RIB1896 - Altar dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus of Doliche

I O M [...]
COH I A[...]
C P FLAVI[...]
XIMIA[...]
TRIB EX [...   ]
I PR MA[...]
To Jupiter, Best and Greatest, of Doliche, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians (set this up) under the command of Flavius Maximianus, tribune, formerly evocatus of the First Praetorian Cohort, styled Maximiniana.
5.  For c as abbreviation of c(ohors) see RIB 792. For evocatus cohortis in the third century see CIL x 538 (Salernum), CIL v 543 (ILS 2147a) Tergeste, Mommsen EE v p. 147. For evocatus see Glossary and note to RIB 966. 6.  The title Maximiniana was applied to the barracks of the equites singulares (CIL xvi no. 146) in a.d. 237, and to leg. III Aug. (CIL viii 2675 (ILS 4194) Lambaesis), and to a cohors Maurorum (CIL iii 10375 (ILS 2552) in Pannonia). This is the sole instance in Britain, and dates the text a.d. 235-8 R.P.W.

Other Deities Attested at Camboglanna

RIB1873 - Altar dedicated to Fortune

DEAE
FORTV
NAE
To the goddess Fortune.
The die has been heavily scored by ploughing.

RIB1897 - Altar dedicated to Latis

DIE
LAT[...]
To the goddess Latis.
For this goddess see RIB 2043.

RIB1902 - Altar dedicated to the Mothers

MATR[...]
VS
PRNV [...]
VVSCO [   ]
L M
To the Mothers ... willingly and deservedly [fulfilled his vow].
No commentary.

RIB1903 - Altar dedicated to Ratis

DAE
RATI VOTV
M IN
PERP
ETVO
To the goddess Ratis a vow in perpetuity.
For dea Rat(is) see RIB 1454 (Chesters).

The Vicus or Civil Settlement

A large civil settlement has long been known to exist in the area to the immediate south-west of the fort. The burial ground at Birdoswald has also been identified in the area to the south-east of the fort, close to the edge of the Irthing escarpment. The reason why the burial ground lay so far away from the vicus had been a complete mystery for quite some time, until in 1999, the site was visited by a group of archaeologists operating under the electronic eyes of Channel-4’s The Time Team, a British commercial TV channel’s award-winning history program.

RIB1919 - Funerary inscription for Aurelius Concordius

D M
AVRELI
CONCOR
DI VIXIT
ANN VN
VM D V
FIL AVREL
IVLIANI
TRIB
To the spirits of the departed (and) of Aurelius Concordius: he lived 1 year, 5 days, son of Aurelius Julianus, the tribune.
Baines loc. cit. (quoted by Huebner CIL vii 289 with the reading ivlivs probvs) describes it as ‘a plain square monument … which seems to record the death of a son or daughter of Julian Probus'. Haverfield (EE ix p. 601) identified it with this Birdoswald inscription.For Aurelius Julianus see RIB 1909.For the cognomen Concordius see CIL xi 6222 (ILS 9204).

RIB1920 - Funerary inscription for Decibalus and Blaesus

D [...]
DECIBA[  ...]
DIEB[...]
ET BLAE[  ...]
S[...]T A X ET[...]
VS FRAT[...]
To the spirits of the departed (and) Decibalus (who) lived ... days and Blaesus (who) lived 10 years ... their brother [set this up].
Since Swinhow's record in l. 6 associates a nominative suffix with frat[… it seems probable that a brother set up this tombstone. His name beginning with Et … is not recoverable, and it cannot be decided whether the names of his deceased brothers were in the genitive or dative case. The general sense of the text is, however, clear R.P.W. Addenda from RIB+add. (1995): For another instance of the Dacian name Decibalus see RIB 2501.156.

A geophysical survey utilizing a number of geophysical techniques was carried out between May and October 1997. A preliminary Earthwork Survey of the entire site was followed by a Close-Contour Topographical Survey conducted within the fort’s defences using a Wild TC1010 Total Station.

The advantage of close-contour survey is that certain elements of micro-topography, not readily visible from the earthwork survey and often concealed by vegetation, become apparent (Biggins & Taylor, p.95).

A Resistivity Survey using a GeoScan RM15 resistivity meter was conducted only within the confines of the fort due to both cost and time considerations. This survey revealed details of the Roman drainage system and also located a number of kilns. Finally, a Magnetometer Survey using a GeoScan FM36 fluxgate gradiometer was conducted both within the fort and outside the defences for a distance of 80m to the west and 120m to the east. Evidence of an extensive civil settlement was seen along the line of the Roman Military Way to the east and the west of the fort usin this technique.

Other Military Sites in the Area

A Roman watch-tower or signal station lies just south of the Birdoswald fort at Mains Rigg on the Stanegate.

Banna Today

Birdoswald Roman Fort, Cumbria
The defences of this fort though incomplete still stand to an impressive height sporting large double gateways but no buildings remain in the interior. The nearby lengths of Hadrian’s Wall are very impressive, that to the west running arrow straight to the foreshortened horizon, its last visible stretch running hidden beneath the modern road, that to the east running somewhat less than straight across the fields to the Willowford Roman bridge. The site is under continual excavation, and the old farm buildings originally constructed using material from the fort have been converted into a visitor centre. The views across the Irthing valley from the southern edge of the site are superb.

References for Banna

  • Britannia xxxii (2001) pp.332/3 & fig.11 p.334; A Survey of the Roman Fort and Settlement at Birdoswald, Cumbria by J.A. Biggins & D.J.A. Taylor in Britannia xxx (1999) pp.91-110;
  • Roman Coins from North-West England by David Shotter (Lancaster, 1990) pp.50-52;
  • Hadrian’s Wall Map and Guide by the Ordnance Survey (Southampton, 1989);
  • Hadrian’s Wall in the Days of the Romans by Ronald Embleton and Frank Graham (Newcastle, 1984) pp.234-242;
  • Hadrian’s Wall History Trails Guidebook II by Les Turnbull (Newcastle, 1974);
  • The Roman Inscriptions of Britain by R.G. Collingwood and R.P. Wright (Oxford, 1965).

Roman Roads near Banna

Hadrian’s Wall: E (4.25) to Banks East Maiden Way: NNW (6.5) to Bewcastle (Bewcastle, Cumbria) Wall: E (3.25) to Magnis Carvetiorvm (Carvoran, Northumberland) Wall: W (7.5) to Camboglanna (Castlesteads, Cumbria) Hadrian’s Wall: E (5) to Leahill Maiden Way: NNW (4) to Robin Hoods Bvtts