Lvgvvalivm (carvetiorvm)

British Capital, Fort and Stanegate Fort

Luguvalium – Town of Luguvalos

The name of the town appears twice in the late-second century list of imperial road-routes the Antonine Itinerary. The first appearance occurs in Iter II the longest of the British itinera, entitled “the route from the 'Entrenchments' to the seaport of Rutupiae“, which details the road stations between Hadrian's Wall (the 'entrenchments') to Portus Rutupiae (Richborough in Kent). In this particular route the Roman name of Carlisle is recorded as Luguvallo, 12 miles from Castra exploratorum (Netherby, Cumbria) and 14 miles from Voreda (Old Penrith, Cumbria). The town is also the northern terminus of the Fifth Itinery, “the route from Londinium to Luguvalium on the Wall, four-hundred and forty-three thousand paces”, this time named Luguvalio and listed 22 miles from Brocavum (Brougham, Cumbria).

The town also appears in the Ravenna Cosmography of the seventh century as Lagubalumi (R&C#129), between the entries for Voreda (Old Penrith, Cumbria) and Magnis (Carvoran, Northumberland).

The Roman name for Carlisle then, was Luguvalio, which had been changed by 1106 to Carleol, from which we derive the modern 'Carlisle'. This is clearly a contraction of the earlier name prefixed by the Welsh word Caer or Cair, meaning 'fort, fortress'. The word luguvalio is unlikely to be Latin, and would appear to be of British origin, possibly the second element is in some sense derived from “wall” or “Valium” and relates to the Roman wall.

We do not know exactly who Luguvalos was or how the Romano-British town came to be named after him, all we do know is that he was a iron-age noble, probably a high-ranking member of the Carvetii tribe who inhabited the countryside hereabouts.

Clickable Map of the Luguvalium Environs

RIB963 - Fragmentary inscription

No commentary.

The Builders of the Carlisle Forts

Legio Nonae Hispana – The Ninth 'Hispanic' Legion

“[Property of] the Ninth Legion.”
(Burn 33; Stamped Tile from Carlisle)

The Roman Forts at Carlisle

OS National Grid Reference: NY 3967 5614
Dimensions: unknown
Area: c. 8 acres (c. 3.2 ha)

The site of the Roman fort at Carlisle lies partly buried beneath the superstructure of Carlisle Castle Keep. The south-eastern corner-angle and substantial attached lengths of the eastern and southern ramparts, fortunately, have survived intact but buried, in the area between the Castle and the A595 Castle Way Road. These accessible defenses have been subjected to rigorous investigation using the most up-to-date methodologies which has enabled modern archaeologists to piece together a detailed picture of the sequence of forts which were built upon the site, all apparently on the same alignment and of similar size. The actual dimensions of the fort cannot be verified without demolishing the Castle, but restrictions in the local topography would seem to indicate the Roman fort platform covered an area of around 8 acres (c. 3.2 ha).

It is now known for certain that the Roman site at Carlisle is pre-Agricolan, as dendrochronological dating of timbers used in the southern rampart of the fort proved that they were cut during the Autumn/Winter of AD 72-3. It now appears almost certain that this fort was built and occupied by a vexillation of Legio IX Hispana during the closing campaigns of Quintus Petilius Cerialis against the Brigantian dissident Venutius, 'to make contact with the sea after an advance from York' (Frere Britannia p.100). Three large temporary marching camps at Plumpton Head, Crackenthorpe and Rey Cross, have all been attributed to the campaigns of this governor and dated sometime around 72/73AD. In further support of this, tiles and pottery sherds bearing the stamp of the Ninth Legion have been discovered at Scalesceugh about 5 miles (8km) south of Carlisle, which makes it very likely that a vexillation from this legion was involved in some way with the Flavian presence at Carlisle. The legion was permanently withdrawn from Britain around 120AD.

Excavations conducted by Miss Dorothy Charlesworth in the 1950's identified the site of a Flavian military enclosure just to the south of the present castle, the medieval structure itself being raised over the north-eastern quadrant of the Roman fortifications. The southern gateway of the fort has been excavated recently by the Carlisle Archaeological Unit, which revealed the timber structure of the gatehouse and its adjoining rampart, the timbers being in a remarkable state of preservation. The fort was defended by a timber rampart and covered about eight acres (3ha). It was obviously located here to guard the strategic crossing over the River Eden. Coinage evidence suggest that the fort underwent some sort of re-occupation c.78-79AD during the Agricolan period, and dendrochronology again suggests that the internal buildings were rebuilt and their timbers replaced during the Autumn/Winter of AD 83-84; this fort was purposefully demolished around 103AD. It had long been thought that the fourth campaign of governor Gnaeus Julius Agricola towards the Tay very likely used Carlisle as the rearward base of the Twentieth Legion during their operations in the south-west of Scotland, but it is certain that this fort remained an important rearward base during the subsequent withdrawal from the Highlands in the 90AD's.

Another timber fort having the same dimensions and general layout was built on the same site sometime around 103-5AD, which retained a garrison until well-into the Hadrianic period. The size of the garrison was only gradually reduced, until the site was finally levelled and abandoned during the Antonine period. A passage from one of the Vindolanda writing tablets records that a centurio regionarius, a title associated with the Trajanic Stanegate, was stationed at Luguvalium in 103AD. Even without archaeological evidence, this epigraphy proves that the Stanegate extended at least to Carlisle, which probably represented the western terminus of the original Trajanic frontier system.

The Carlisle site was obviously eclipsed in importance during the Hadrianic period by the establishment of the large auxiliary cavalry fort at Stanwix which was built astride Hadrian's Wall only ½-mile to the north-east. To the east of Carlisle for many miles the Wall was built in a narrow guage (i.e. 7'6″) upon a broad foundation (10' wide), while to the west the narrow wall was continued upon a narrow foundation (around 8' broad).

An inscription found at Carlisle dated to the reign of Commodus (176-192AD) refers to the 'rout of a huge multitude of barbarians' (RIB946), and several dedicatory inscriptions dated to the third century record legionary activity at Carlisle. Another fort, this time of stone, was built on the same site c.200AD by soldiers from the Twentieth Legion, which was finally abandoned sometime between 275-325AD. It seems likely then, that the Carlisle fort retained a legionary cohort until the fourth century, possibly in a logistic capacity, the fort becoming more of a quartermasters complex such as at Corbridge, which marked the eastern end of the Stanegate frontier. There is no entry for Luguvalium in the Notitia Dignitatum, and interestingly enough, there is no mention of Corbridge either.

The Garrison Units of Luguvalium

RIB957 - Fragmentary dedication by prefect of Ala Augusta Petriana

[...] LVCA [...]
... from Luca, prefect of the Cavalry Regiment Augusta Petriana, decorated with a torque, one thousand strong, Roman citizens, gave it as a gift or gave and dedicated it.
No commentary.

RIB946 - Dedication to Hercules

DEI HERC[...  ...]
VICTI CON[...  ...]
TIBVS PRO S[...  ...]
P SEXTANIV[  5...   ...]
TAT TRAIA[...    ]
To the virtues of the Roman Hercules, Unconquered, the Founder, for the welfare of the dedicator and his fellow-soldiers, after the slaughter of a band of barbarians by the Cavalry Regiment styled Augusta for valour, Publius Sextanius ..., the prefect, from Xanten, willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow.
For the significance of the Hercules cult and for the date see Rostovtseff loc. cit. The text dates to a.d. 180-92, but before the close of 192 when Commodus identified himself with Hercules. 4.  For the phrase caesa manu see RIB 1142. 7.  As the serif on the ligatured ni, though clear, is not long enough to indicate t, the nomen is Sextaniu[s], and not Sextantius. Schulze and Dessau cite no example; for Sextinius see CIL vi 26519. 7, 8.  civitas Traianensium: Xanten, 80 km. north of Cologne. Addenda from RIB+add. (1995): The identification with Commodus, and so the date, remains unproven. The inscription is also discussed by Birley, Deities, 27-8. Addenda from Britannia xxx (1999): RIB 946 + add. has been re-examined. The identification of Commodus with Hercules and the restoration of ll. 1-3 are extensively discussed by R.S.O.T. in Brit. 30 (1999) 384-6.

RIB949 - Dedication to Mars Ocelus and to the Divinity of the Emperor Alexander Augustus, and to Julia Mamaea

[...] DOMVI
To the god Mars Ocelus and to the Divinity of the Emperor Alexander Augustus, and to Julia Mamaea, mother of the army and senate and country, and to the whole Divine House ..
For Mars Ocelus see RIB 309, 310.
“To the god Mars Belatucader.”
“For Victorious Mars.”
(RIB 948; altarstone)
(RIB 950)

The most attested deity of Roman Carlisle is the war god Mars who has three dedications, all shared with other deities, to Mars Belatucader (948, altarstone), Mars Ocelus (949) and to Mars Victorius (950). There are two dedications to the Genii or 'Guardian Spirits' (944, figurine; 945, altarstone) and another two altarstones to unknown deities (947; 954).

“For the Guardian Spirit of the Century, the centurion Bassilis Crescens donated this votive offering.”
“For the Guardian Spirit of this place.”
(RIB 944; figurine of Genius)
(RIB 945; altarstone)
“A hired mercenary from the barbaric regions, Januarius Ri[…] a poor area¹ […] willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow.”
“[…] he has consecrated both the altarstone and the small-temple, (and) dedicated this votive offering.”
(RIB 947; altarstone)
(RIB 954; altarstone)
  1. Never mind this section, the whole text is a bit dodgy!

In addition, single stones have been found dedicated to the companion-god Cautis (943; pedestal), the demi-god/hero Hercules (946, niche, dated: 180-192AD?), the 'Mother Goddesses' (951, base), the god of commerce Mercury (952, relief of Mercury), the Parcae or the 'Fates' (953, altarstone), the goddess Concordia by two Roman legions (964a, base), and another altarstone dedicated to 'all of the Gods and Goddesses' (964b, dated: 213-222AD).

“To the god Cautis, Julius Archietus has given this votive offering.”
943; pedestal
“To the Mother (goddesses) of the Ancestors, for the well-being of the holy twins.”
951; base
“For the god Mercury […]”
952; relief
“To the Fates, for a promising household, Natalis, a father, willingly and deservedly fulfills his vow.”
953; altar

The Civil Settlement

There is no doubt that the civil settlement at Carlisle thrived primarily due to the continued presence of the Roman military, first on the south bank of the Eden and later also to the north where a separate smaller settlement developed in the area between the auxiliary fort at Stanwix and the river. The defences of the Romano-British town enclosed some seventy acres, and it became a flourishing centre for trade, relaxation and retirement. Inscriptions in Greek as well as Latin have been found, indicating that Roman Carlisle was fairly cosmopolitan.

A school of stone-carvers became established at Carlisle, the only school of British masons so far identified. The masons created tombstones from the local sandstone, some of which have been found in the surrounding Romano-British settlements at Old Carlisle and Bowness. The school operated from the Antonine period until well into the third century AD.

The discovery of buildings in the Blackfriars area of Carlisle, confirms the continuation of the civilian settlement into the fifth century; beyond this date things get a but tenuous until Carlisle and all surrounding land and its inhabitants in a fifteen mile radius was granted to St. Cuthbert in a charter dated to 685AD.

The Citizens of Luguvalium

RIB955 - Funerary inscription for Flavius Antigonus Papias

To the spirits of the departed Flavius Antigonus Papias, a citizen of Greece, lived sixty years, more or less, and gave back to the Fates his soul lent for that extent of time. Septimia Do[... (set this up).
This tombstone is probably Christian and belongs to the fourth century (see Haverfield in PSA 14 (1893) 263, Cumb. Westm. AAST 1st Ser. xiii (1895) 165), although Professor Jocelyn Toynbee (BAAJ 3rd Ser. xvi (1953) 14) considers that the arguments cited below ‘for the Christian character of the stone would seem to be sound, so far as they go; but they are not quite conclusive’.dm, though a pagan usage, is by no means unknown on fourth-century Christian tombstones (see Haverfield Acad. loc. cit.).plus minus: ‘more or less’ is characteristically Christian.The interpretation of quem ad modum … animam revocavit is difficult, animam reddere for ‘rendering one’s soul to God’ is used on Christian inscriptions, e.g. Diehl ILCV ix 3326, 3327 (= CIL xiii 2359); and for revocare in the sense of reddere Haverfield cites an African instance of a.d. 314 in Optatus Milevitanus app. 27b Acta Purgationis Felicis (Corp. Script. Eccl. Lat. xxvi p. 202 ed. Ziwsa): revocare codices. Further, in CIL xv 7181 ff. revocare is regularly used in the sense of ‘restore’ on fourth-century name-plates and collars for slaves or dogs by pagans and Christians alike (for a Christian example see CIL xv 7192).accom(m)odare can mean a ‘loan’ (e.g. Valerius Maximus 1, 5, 4, paulisper locum residendi accommodare).The metrical phrases should be noted: fatis animam revocavit makes the end of a hexameter and is presumably a quotation. Even accomodatam may have formed part of a metrical phrase, for its first three syllables are scanned as a dactyl in CIL vi 1343. Thus the awkwardness in ll. 4-6 may well be due to a use of phrases from metrical epitaphs. For a somewhat similar mixture of metrical tags on a Christian metrical epitaph see Diehl ILCV ix 3330 (= Bücheler, Carmina Latina epigraphica (1895) 1339) where in l. 12 vix commodata suo is used as the end of a pentameter.

RIB959 - Funerary inscription for Aurelia Aureliana

To the spirits of the departed Aurelia Aureliana lived 41 years. Ulpius Apolinaris set this up to his very beloved wife.
No commentary. Addenda from RIB+add. (1995): Full description in CSIR i, 6. 493, which notes that she is holding poppies symbolizing the sleep of death. The hairstyle suits a mid-third century date, as do the diamond-shaped Os of the inscription, cf. RIB 334.
  1. The restoration of this name is entirely conjectural.

The Civitas Carvetiorum

The Civitas Carvetiorum or the 'tribal council of the Carvetii' is first attested during the rule of emperor Postumus, the Carvetii cantonal council almost certainly met at Carlisle. It is thought that the Carvetii were in fact the tribe of Venutius, the consort of Cartimandua of the Brigantes, if this were true, then it is quite possible that he lived at Old Carlisle, which was probably the chief pre-Roman tribal centre.

It is probable that the Romano-British town of Luguvalium, given its concentration of retired Roman soldiers attested by inscriptions, was awarded some sort of civil charter.

The Provincial City

Following the defeat of the former British propraetor Albinus by the emperor Caracalla in 197AD, the province of Britannia was split into two, Londinium remained the provincial capital of Britannia Superior while the inferior province in the north was governed from Eboracum (York). Later, during the reign of Diocletian around 296AD the provinces of Britain were again split into two, the administration of Britannia Inferior was divided into a military post of legatus, based at York with command of the provinces only legion, and an administrative position of procurator, who had only auxiliary forces, and was probably based at Carlisle. The town may also have been the capital town of the later Roman province of Velantia.

The Local Roman Road System

An arterial road ran south along the valley of the Petteril between Carlisle and Penrith, now roughly followed by the modern A6. Several signal stations have been identified beside this road, Barrock Side and Barrock Fell in particular.

Another arterial road ran over the mosses to the north of Carlisle to the fort at Netherby and possibly on to Broomholm. Another road branched off this northern road after the Lyne crossing south of Netherby, probably crossing the Esk near Burnfoot and continuing due west to Birrens and onwards into the Dumfries area.

The recently identified Roman road leading east from Kirkbride near the mouth of the Wampool ran towards Burgh-by-Sands and must have terminated at Carlisle. This road is thought to represent a westward extension of the Stanegate frontier during the early second century.

The Harraby Bridge Milestone

RIB2290 - Fragmentary milestone

[...]M[  ...]
... the Emperor ..
No commentary.
“For Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius Pius Felix,¹ the Unconquered Augustus.”
“For Flavius Valerius Constantinus,² Noble Caesar.”
(RIB 2291; dated: 286-293AD)
(RIB 2292; dated: 306-307AD)
  1. Carausius the Usurper.
  2. The future emperor Constantine.

Carausius was the commander of the Roman North Sea Fleet who siezed control of Britain in 286AD and proclaimed himself emperor. He also held the Gallic port of Gesoriacum (Boulogne) until 293 where he was defeated in battle by Constantius Caesar and fled back to Britain, whereupon he was treacherously slain later that same year by his trusted first-minister and treasurer Allectus. Constantius was appointed Caesar in March 293AD and recovered Britain from Allectus in 297 whereupon he ruled from Eboracum (York) as 'Caesar in the West', until his elevation to Augustus in May 305 when his title changed to 'Emperor in the West'. His reign was not to last, however, for he died of 'illness' (probably the Romano-British equivalent of Dheli-Belly) at York in July 306.

Constantius' son Constantine was appointed Caesar sometime during 306AD, and was proclaimed Augustus (i.e. Emperor in the West) by the soldiers – presumably the men of Legio VI Victrix – after his father's death at York the following year. Constantine quickly returned to the continent to establish his birthright and was converted to Christianity after the Battle of the Milvian Bridge against Maxentius in 312. He went on to defeat his co-emperor Licinius in two decisive victories on the Bosphorus in 324, and, once sole emperor, he forbade all pagan sacrifice, convening the Council of Nicea and declaring Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire the following year. He died of natural causes at Constantinople, his new capital, in May 337, dropping the title Pontifex Maximus and receiving Christian baptism shortly before his death.

Luguvalium Today

Tullie House Museum, Carlisle
Though few Roman remains can nowadays be seen in situ, many of the archaeological finds recovered from Carlisle and many of the sites along the Wall are on display at the Tullie House Museum in the centre of the Mediaeval walled town, part of Carlisle's Public Library and Art Gallery. Exhibits include displays on the day-to-day life in Roman Britain, including tools, ornaments, footware, glass and pottery.

References for Lvgvvalivm (carvetiorvm)

Hadrian's Wall Map and Guide by the Ordnance Survey (Southampton, 1989); The Carvetii by Nicholas Higham and Barri Jones (Sutton, London, 1985); Hadrian's Wall in the Days of the Romans by Ronald Embleton and Frank Graham (Newcastle, 1984) pp.311-316; The Roman Inscriptions of Britain by R.G. Collingwood and R.P. Wright (Oxford 1965); The Romans in Britain An anthology of Inscriptions by A.R. Burn (Oxford 1932); Hadrian's Wall Map and Guide by the Ordnance Survey (Southampton, 1989); The Carvetii by Nicholas Higham and Barri Jones (Sutton, London, 1985); Hadrian's Wall in the Days of the Romans by Ronald Embleton and Frank Graham (Newcastle, 1984) pp.311-316; The Roman Inscriptions of Britain by R.G. Collingwood and R.P. Wright (Oxford 1965); The Romans in Britain An anthology of Inscriptions by A.R. Burn (Oxford 1932); Hadrian's Wall Map and Guide by the Ordnance Survey (Southampton, 1989); The Carvetii by Nicholas Higham and Barri Jones (Sutton, London, 1985); Hadrian's Wall in the Days of the Romans by Ronald Embleton and Frank Graham (Newcastle, 1984) pp.311-316; The Roman Inscriptions of Britain by R.G. Collingwood and R.P. Wright (Oxford 1965); The Romans in Britain An anthology of Inscriptions by A.R. Burn (Oxford 1932); Hadrian's Wall Map and Guide by the Ordnance Survey (Southampton, 1989); The Carvetii by Nicholas Higham and Barri Jones (Sutton, London, 1985); Hadrian's Wall in the Days of the Romans by Ronald Embleton and Frank Graham (Newcastle, 1984) pp.311-316; The Roman Inscriptions of Britain by R.G. Collingwood and R.P. Wright (Oxford 1965); The Romans in Britain An anthology of Inscriptions by A.R. Burn (Oxford 1932);

Roman Roads near Lvgvvalivm (carvetiorvm)

Stanegate: W (6) to Aballava (Burgh by Sands, Cumbria) SSE (6) to Barrockside Roman Military Way: W (2.5) to Grinsdale Probable Road: NW (14) to Kirkpatrick Stanegate: N (0.5) to Uxelodvnvm (Stanwix, Cumbria) WSW (10) to Old Carlisle (Old Carlisle, Cumbria) Iter II: SSE (5) to Wreay (Cummersdale, Cumbria) Stanegate: ENE (8) to Old Chvrch (Cumbria)