The Antonine Itinerary Iter Britanniarum – The British Section

The Antonine Itinerary – “The Itinerary of the Emperor Antoninus” or the “Itinerarium Provinciarum Antoni(ni) Augusti”, to give its full Latin title, is a famous itinerarium, a register of the stations and distances along various roads. Seemingly based on official documents, possibly from a survey carried out under Augustus, it describes the roads of the Roman Empire.

When plotted, two notable omissions of the Antonine Itinerary become apparent; the line of Hadrian’s Wall, and the south-western half of the Fosse Way between Exeter in Devon to the junction with Watling Street at High Cross in Leicestershire.

This websites’ translations of the latin text are [highlighted and enclosed in square brackets]. Question marks ?, used for those names over which some doubt still exists. Some passages have also been given extra emphasis

When was the The Antonine Itinerary written?

the Itinerary has often been ascribed to the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius (ruled 138 – 161) but it is clear that this cannot be the case. The British section, crucially, is headed “Iter Britanniarum”;  Britanniarum is plural, indicating that the collection was put together after Britain was divided into two provinces by Septimius Severus c.197 A.D.


[The Road Routes of Antoninus Augustus]


[The British Routes]

A Gessoriaco de Galliis Ritupis in portu Britanniarum Stadia numero CCCCL
[From Gesoriacum of the Gauls (Boulogne, France) to the port of Rutupiae in Britain (Richborough, Kent) a distance of four-hundred and fifty stadia]


A limite id est a vallo Praetorio usque mpm clvi

[From the frontier, that is, from the entrenchments (Hadrian’s Wall), all the way to Praesidium one-hundred and fifty-six thousand paces]

  • A Bremenio
    [= Bremenivm = High Rochester, Northumberland]
  • Corstopitum xx
    [= Corstopitvm = Corbridge, Northumberland]
  • Vindomora viiii
    [= Vindomora = Ebchester, Durham]
  • Vinovia xviiii
    [= Vinovivm = Binchester, Durham]
  • Cataractoni xxii
    [= Cataractonivm = Catterick, North Yorkshire]
  • Isurium xxiiii
    [= Isvrivm = Aldborough, North Yorkshire]
  • Eburacum, leg. vi victrix, xvii
    [= Ebvracvm = York, North Yorkshire] [home of Legio Sextae Victrix]
  • ?Derventione vii
    [?= Derventio = Malton, North Yorkshire?]
    [?= Stamford Bridge, Humberside?]
    [?= nr. Claxton, North Yorkshire?]
  • Delgovicia xiii
    [?= Delgovicia = nr. Millington, Humberside?]
    [?= nr. Wetwang, Humberside?]
    [?= Derventio = Malton, North Yorkshire?]
  • Praetorio xxv
    [?= Praesidivm = Bridlington, Humberside?]
    [?= Petuaria = Brough-on-Humber, Humberside?]
  • (Total 156)


Item a vallo ad portum Ritupis mpm cccclxxxi sic
[Likewise from the Wall [of Hadrian] to the port of Rutupiae four-hundred and eighty-one thousand paces thus written]

  • A Blato Bulgio
    [= Blatobvlgivm = Birrens, Dumfries & Galloway]
  • Castra exploratorum xii
    [= Castra Exploratorvm = Netherby, Cumbria]
  • Luguvallo xii
    [= = Carlisle, Cumbria]
    Voreda xiiii
    Voreda = Old Penrith, Cumbria]
  • Brovonacis xiii
    [= Bravoniacvm = Kirby Thore, Cumbria]
    Verteris xiii
    [= Verteris = Brough Castle, Cumbria]
  • Lavatris xiiii
    [= Lavatris = Bowes, Durham]
  • Cataractone xvi
    [= Cataractonivm = Catterick, North Yorkshire]
  • Isurium xxiiii
    [= Isvrivm = Aldborough, North Yorkshire]
  • Eburacum xvii
    [= Ebvracvm = York, North Yorkshire]
  • Calcaria viiii
    [= Calcaria = Tadcaster, North Yorkshire]
  • ?Camboduno xx
  • [?= Cambodvnvm = Slack, South Yorkshire?]
  • Mamucio xviii
    [= Mamvcivm = Manchester, Greater Manchester]
  • Condate xviii
  • [= Condate = Northwich, Cheshire]
  • Deva, leg. xx vict, xx
    [= Deva = Chester, Cheshire] [home of Legio Vicesimae Valeria Victrix]
  • ?Bovio x
    [?= Bovivm = Tilston, Cheshire?]
  • Mediolano xx
  • [= Mediolanvm = Whitchurch, Shropshire]
  • ?Rutunio xii
    [?= Rvtvnivm = Harcourt Park, Shropshire?]
  • Urioconio xi
    [= Viroconivm = Wroxeter, Shropshire]
  • Uxacona xi
    [= Vxacona = Redhill, Shropshire]
  • Pennocrucio xii
    [= Pennocrvcivm = Water Eaton, Staffordshire]
  • Eoceto xii
    [= Letocetvm = Wall, Staffordshire]
  • Manduesedo xvi
    [= Mandvessedvm = Mancetter, Warwickshire]
  • Venonis xii
    [= Venonis = High Cross, Leicestershire]
  • Bannaventa xvii
    [= Bannaventa = Whilton Lodge, Northhamptonshire]
  • Lactodor xii
    [= Lactodvrvm = Towcester, Northamptonshire]
  • Magiovinto xvii
    [= Magiovinivm = Dropshort, Buckinghamshire]
  • Durocobrivis xii
    [= Dvrocobrivis = Dunstable, Bedfordshire]
  • Verolamio xii
    [= Vervlamivm = St. Alban’s, Hertfordshire]
  • Sulloniacis viiii
    [= Svlloniacis = Brockley Hill, Greater London]
  • Londinio xii
    [= Londinivm = London, Greater London]
  • ?Noviomago x
    [?= Noviomagvs = Crayford, Greater London?]
  • ?Vagniacis xviii
    [?= Vagniacis = Springhead, Kent?]
  • Durobrivis viiii
    [= Dvrobrivae = Rochester, Kent]
  • ?Durolevo xiii
    [?= Dvrolevvm = Ospringe, Kent?]
  • Duroverno xii
    [= Dvrovernvm = Canterbury, Kent]
  • Ad portum Ritupis xii
    [= Rvtvpiae = Richborough, Kent]
  • (Total 501)


Item a Londinio ad portum Dubris mpm lxvi sic
[Likewise from Londinium to the port of Dubris sixty-six thousand paces thus written]


Item a Londinio ad portum Lemanis mpm lxviii sic
[Likewise from Londinium to the port of Lemanis sixty-eight thousand paces thus written]


Item a Londinio Luguvalio ad vallum mpm ccccxliii sic
[Likewise from Londinium to Luguvalium (Carlisle, Cumbria) on the Wall four-hundred and forty-three thousand paces thus written]

  • Caesaromago xxviii
    [= [link_post post_id="428"]Caesaromagus
    = Chelmsford, Essex]
  • Colonia xxiiii
    [= Camulodunum = Colchester, Essex]
  • ?Villa Faustini xxxv
    [?= Scole, Norfolk?]
  • Icinos xviiii
    [=Venta Icenorum = Caistor St. Edmund, Norfolk]
  • ?Camborico xxxv
    [?= Camboritvm = Lackford, Suffolk?]
  • Duroliponte xxv
    [= Dvroliponte = Cambridge, Cambridgeshire]
  • Durobrivas xxxv
    [= Dvrobrivae = Water Newton, Cambridgeshire]
  • ?Causennis xxx
    [?= Cavsennae = Ancaster, Lincolnshire?]
    [?= Saltersford, Lincolnshire?]
    [?= Sapperton, Lincolnshire?]
  • Lindo xxvi
    [= Lindvm = Lincoln, Lincolnshire]
  • Segeloci xiiii
    [= Segelocvm = Littleborough, Nottinghamshire]
  • Dano xxi
  • [= Danvm = Doncaster, South Yorkshire]
  • ?Legeolio xvi
    [?= Lagentivm = Castleford, South Yorkshire?]
  • Eburaco xxi
    [= Ebvracvm = York, North Yorkshire]
  • Isubrigantum xvii
    [= Isvrivm Brigantvm = Aldborough, North Yorkshire]
  • Cataractone xxiiii
    [= Cataractonivm = Catterick, North Yorkshire]
  • Levatris xviii
    [= Lavatris = Bowes, Durham]
  • Verteris xiiii
    [= Verteris = Brough Castle, Cumbria]
  • Brocavo xx
    [= Brocavvm = Brougham, Cumbria]
  • Luguvalio xxii
    [= = Carlisle, Cumbria]
  • (Total 443)


Item a Londinio Lindo mpm clvi sic
[Likewise from Londinium to Lindum one-hundred and fifty-six thousand paces thus written]
Verolamixxi[= Vervlamivm = St. Alban’s, Hertfordshire]
Durocobrivisxii[= Dvrocobrivis = Dunstable, Bedfordshire]
Magiovinioxii[= Magiovinivm = Dropshort, Buckinghamshire]
Lactodoroxvi[= Lactodvrvm = Towcester, Northamptonshire]
?Isannavantiaxii[= Bannaventa = Whilton Lodge, Northamptonshire]
Tripontioxii[= Tripontivm = Cave’s Inn, Warwickshire]
Venonisviii[= Venonis = High Cross, Leicestershire]
Ratasxii[= Ratae = Leicester, Leicestershire]
?Verometoxiii[= Vernemetvm = Willoughby, Nottinghamshire]
Margidunoxii[= Margidvnvm = Castle Hill, Nottinghamshire]
Ad Pontemvii[= Ad Pontem = East Stoke, Nottinghamshire]
Crococalanavii[= Crococalana = Brough, Nottinghamshire]
Lindoxii[= Lindvm = Lincoln, Lincolnshire]
 (Total 156) 


Item a Regno Londinio mpm xcvi sic

[Likewise from [Noviomagus] Regnorum (Chichester, Sussex) to ?Clausentumxx[?= CLAVSENTVM = Bitterne, Hampshire?] [?= Wickham, Hampshire?] Venta Belgarumx[= VENTA BELGARVM = Winchester, Hampshire] Calleva Atrebatumxxii[= CALLEVA = Silchester, Hampshire] ?Pontibusxxii[= PONTES = Staines, Surrey] Londinioxxii[= LONDINIVM = London, Greater London] (Total 96)


Item ab Eburaco Londinium mpm ccxxvii sic
[Likewise from Eburacum (York, North Yorkshire) to Londinium two-hundred and twenty-seven thousand paces thus written]
?Lagecioxxi[= Lagentivm = Castleford, South Yorkshire]
Danoxvi[= Danvm = Doncaster, South Yorkshire]
?Agelocoxxi[= Segelocvm = Littleborough, Nottinghamshire]
Lindoxiiii[= Lindvm = Lincoln, Lincolnshire]
Crococalanaxiiii[= Crococalana = Brough, Nottinghamshire]
Margidunoxiiii[= Margidvnvm = Castle Hill, Nottinghamshire]
Vernemetoxii[= Vernemetvm = Willoughby, Nottinghamshire]
Ratisxii[= Ratae = Leicester, Leicestershire]
Venonisxii[= Venonis = High Cross, Leicestershire]
Bannaventoxviii[= Bannaventa = Whilton Lodge, Northamptonshire]
Magiovinioxxviii[= Magiovinivm = Dropshort, Buckinghamshire]
Durocobrivisxii[= Dvrocobrivis = Dunstable, Bedfordshire]
Verolamoxii[= Vervlamivm = St. Alban’s, Hertfordshire]
Londinioxxi[= Londinivm = London, Greater London]
 (Total 227) 


Item a Venta Icinorum Londinio mpm cxxviii sic
[Likewise from Venta Inecorum (Caistor St. Edmund, Norfolk) to Londinium one-hundred and twenty-eight thousand paces thus written]
?Sitomagoxxxii[?= Sitomagus ?= nr. [link_post post_id="270"]Saxmundham, Suffolk? / Ixworth, Suffolk?]
Combretonioxxii[= Combretovium = Baylham House, Suffolk]
?Ad Ansamxv[?= Ad Ansam ?= nr. Stratford St. Mary, Suffolk?]
Camolodunovi[= Camulodunum = Colchester, Essex]
Canonioviiii[= Canonivm = Kelvedon, Essex]
Caesaromagoxii[= Caesaromagus = Chelmsford, Essex]
?Durolitoxvi[?= Dvrolitvm = Nr. Romford, Greater London?]
Londinioxv[= Londinivm = London, Greater London]
 (Total 127) 


Item a Clanoventa Mediolano mpm cl sic
[Likewise from Glannoventa (Ravenglass, Cumbria) to Mediolanum one-hundred and fifty thousand paces thus written]
Galavaxviii[= Galava = Ambleside, Cumbria]
?Alonexii[?= Alavana = Watercrook, Cumbria?]
?Calacumxviiii[?= Calacvm = Burrow in Lonsdale, Lancashire?]
Bremetonacixxvii[= Bremetenacvm = Ribchester, Lancashire]
?Coccioxx[?= Coccivm = Wigan, Lancashire?]
Mancunioxvii[= Mamvcivm = Manchester, Greater Manchester]
Condatexviii[= Condate = Northwich, Cheshire]
Mediolanoxviiii[= Mediolanvm = Whitchurch, Shropshire]
 (Total 150) 


Item a Segontio Devam mpm lxxiiii sic
[Likewise from Segontium (Caernarfon, Gwynedd) to Deva seventy-four thousand paces thus written]
Conovioxxiiii[= Canovivm = Caerhun, Gwynedd]
?Varisxviii[?= St. Asaph, Clwyd?]
Devaxxxii[= Deva = Chester, Cheshire]
 (Total 74) 


Item a Muriduno Viroconium mpm clxxxvi sic
[Likewise from Moridunum (Carmarthen, Dyfed) to Viroconium one-hundred and eighty-six thousand paces thus written]
?Vindomixv[?= Vindomis = Neatham, Hampshire?]
Venta Belgarumxxi[= Venta Belgarvm = Winchester, Hampshire]
?Brigexi[?= Briga = nr. Horsebridge, Hampshire?]
Sorvioduniviii[= Sorviodvnvm = Old Sarum, Wiltshire]
Vindogladiaxii[= Vindocladia = Badbury, Dorset]
Durnonovariaviii[= Dvrnovaria = Dorchester, Dorset]
?Muridonoxxxvi[?= Muridunum = nr. Honiton, Devon?]
Isca Dumnoniorumxv[= Isca = Exeter, Devon]
[Anomaly#1 in Original Text – Discussed Below]
Leucaroxv[= Levcarvm = Loughor, West Glamorgan]
Nidoxv[= Nidvm = Neath, West Glamorgan]
?Bomioxv[?= Bomivm = nr. Bridgend, Mid Glamorgan?]
Iscae leg. ii Augustaxxvii[= Isca = Caerleon, Gwent] [home of Legio Secunda Augusta]
Burrioviiii[= Bvrrivm = Usk, Gwent]
Gobannioxii[= Gobannivm = Abergavenny, Gwent]
Magnisxxii[= Magnis = Kenchester, Hereford & Worcester]
Bravonioxxiiii[= Bravonivm = Leintwardine, Hereford & Worcester]
Viroconioxxvii[= Viroconivm = Wroxeter, Shropshire]
 (Total 272) 
  1. There is an obvious error in the British section here. The stations above this point seem to have been copied directly from Iter XV (see below), and the following entries have all been identified with places in South Wales. Perhaps some unknown medieval copyist made the mistake of equating Muridono (nr. Honiton, Devon) with Moridunum (Carmarthen, Dyfed), and thus transposed an entire block of text.


Item ab Isca Calleva mpm cviiii sic
[Likewise from Isca Silurum (Caerleon, Gwent) to Calleva Atrebatum one-hundred and nine thousand paces thus written]
Burrioviiii[= Bvrrivm = Usk, Gwent]
?Blestioxi[?= Blestivm = Monmouth, Gwent?]
Ariconioxi[= Ariconivm = Weston under Penyard, Hereford & Worcester]
Clevoxv[= Glevvm = Gloucester, Gloucestershire]
[Anomaly#2 in Original Text – Discussed Below]
?Durocornovioxiiii[?= Dvrocornovivm = Wanborough, Wiltshire?]
?Spinisxv[?= Spinae = nr. Newbury, Berkshire?]
Callevaxv[= Calleva Attrebatum = Silchester, Hampshire]
 (Total 90) 
  1. There is another obvious error in this itinerary. An unknown copyist seems to have missed out the entry for Corinium Dobunnorum (Cirencester, Gloucestershire), which lies 15 miles from both Gloucester and Wanborough; the multiple occurrences of the distance numerals XV in the text, very likely being the cause of the original omission.


Item alio itinere ab Isca Calleva mpm ciii sic
[Likewise an alternate route from Isca Silurum to Calleva Atrebatum one-hundred and three thousand paces thus written]
Venta Silurumviiii[= Venta Silurum = Caerwent, Gwent]
Abonexiiii[= Abona = Sea Mills, Avon] [Quite likely a journey by ferry across the Bristol Channel.]
?Traiectusviiii[?= Traiectvs = Bitton, nr. Willsbridge, Avon?]
Aquis Solisvi[= Aqvae Svlis = Bath, Avon]
Verlucionexv[= Verlvcio = Sandy Lane, Wiltshire]
Cunetionexx[= Cvnetio = Mildenhall, Wiltshire]
?Spinisxv[?= Spinae = nr. Newbury, Berkshire?]
Callevaxv[= Calleva Attrebatum = Silchester, Hampshire]
 (Total 103) 


Item a Calleva Isca Dumnoniorum mpm cxxxvi sic
[Likewise from Silchester (Calleva Attrebatum) Roman Settlement to Isca Dumnoniorum one-hundred and thirty-six thousand paces thus written]
?Vindomixv[?= Vindomis = Neatham, Hampshire?]
Venta Belgarumxxi[= Venta Belgarvm = Winchester, Hampshire]
?Brigexi[?= Briga = nr. Horsebridge, Hampshire?]
Sorbiodoniviii[= Sorviodvnvm = Old Sarum, Wiltshire]
Vindogladiaxii[= Vindocladia = Badbury, Dorset]
Durononvariaviii[= Dvrnovaria = Dorchester, Dorset]
?Muridunoxxxvi[?= Muridunum = nr. Honiton, Devon?]
Isca Dumnoniorumxv[= Isca = Exeter, Devon]
 (Total 126) 

The text in the following table is based on Parthey and Pinder’s Edition (1848, Berlin); including Wesseling’s 1735 additions (enclosed within parentheses).