The Antonine Itinerary Iter Britanniarum – The British Section

The Antonine Itinerary – “The Itinerary of the Emperor Antoninus” is a famous itinerarium, a register of the stations and distances along various roads. Seemingly based on official documents, possibly from a survey carried out under Augustus, it describes the roads of the Roman Empire.

When plotted, two notable omissions of the Antonine Itinerary become apparent; the line of Hadrian’s Wall, and the south-western half of the Fosse Way between Exeter in Devon to the junction with Watling Street at High Cross in Leicestershire.

This websites’ translations of the latin text are [highlighted and enclosed in square brackets]. Question marks ?, used as eyecatchers for those names over which some doubt still exists. Some passages have also been given extra emphasis

I TINERARIVM A NTONINI A VGVSTI

[The Road Routes of Antoninus Augustus]

I TER B RITANNIARVM

[The British Routes]

A Gessoriaco de Galliis Ritupis in portu Britanniarum Stadia numero CCCCL
[From Gesoriacum of the Gauls (Boulogne, France) to the port of Rutupiae in Britain (Richborough, Kent) a distance of four-hundred and fifty stadia]

(ITER I)

A limite id est a vallo Praetorio usque mpm clvi
[From the frontier, that is, from the entrenchments (Hadrian’s Wall), all the way to Praesidium one-hundred and fifty-six thousand paces]
A Bremenio [= Bremenivm = High Rochester, Northumberland]
Corstopitum xx [= Corstopitvm = Corbridge, Northumberland]
Vindomora viiii [= Vindomora = Ebchester, Durham]
Vinovia xviiii [= Vinovivm = Binchester, Durham]
Cataractoni xxii [= Cataractonivm = Catterick, North Yorkshire]
Isurium xxiiii [= Isvrivm = Aldborough, North Yorkshire]
Eburacum, leg. vi victrix, xvii [= Ebvracvm = York, North Yorkshire] [home of Legio Sextae Victrix]
?Derventione vii [?= Derventio = Malton, North Yorkshire?] [?= Stamford Bridge, Humberside?] [?= nr. Claxton, North Yorkshire?]
?Delgovicia xiii [?= Delgovicia = nr. Millington, Humberside?] [?= nr. Wetwang, Humberside?] [?= Derventio = Malton, North Yorkshire?]
?Praetorio xxv [?= Praesidivm = Bridlington, Humberside?] [?= Petuaria = Brough-on-Humber, Humberside?]
(Total 156)

(ITER II)

Item a vallo ad portum Ritupis mpm cccclxxxi sic
[Likewise from the Wall [of Hadrian] to the port of Rutupiae four-hundred and eighty-one thousand paces thus written]
A Blato Bulgio [= Blatobvlgivm = Birrens, Dumfries & Galloway]
Castra exploratorum xii [= Castra Exploratorvm = Netherby, Cumbria]
Luguvallo xii [= Lvgvvalivm (carvetiorvm) = Carlisle, Cumbria]
Voreda xiiii [= Voreda = Old Penrith, Cumbria]
Brovonacis xiii [= Bravoniacvm = Kirby Thore, Cumbria]
Verteris xiii [= Verteris = Brough Castle, Cumbria]
Lavatris xiiii [= Lavatris = Bowes, Durham]
Cataractone xvi [= Cataractonivm = Catterick, North Yorkshire]
Isurium xxiiii [= Isvrivm = Aldborough, North Yorkshire]
Eburacum xvii [= Ebvracvm = York, North Yorkshire]
Calcaria viiii [= Calcaria = Tadcaster, North Yorkshire]
?Camboduno xx [?= Cambodvnvm = Slack, South Yorkshire?]
Mamucio xviii [= Mamvcivm = Manchester, Greater Manchester]
Condate xviii [= Condate = Northwich, Cheshire]
Deva, leg. xx vict, xx [= Deva = Chester, Cheshire] [home of Legio Vicesimae Valeria Victrix]
?Bovio x [?= Bovivm = Tilston, Cheshire?]
Mediolano xx [= Mediolanvm = Whitchurch, Shropshire]
?Rutunio xii [?= Rvtvnivm = Harcourt Park, Shropshire?]
Urioconio xi [= Viroconivm = Wroxeter, Shropshire]
Uxacona xi [= Vxacona = Redhill, Shropshire]
Pennocrucio xii [= Pennocrvcivm = Water Eaton, Staffordshire]
Eoceto xii [= Letocetvm = Wall, Staffordshire]
Manduesedo xvi [= Mandvessedvm = Mancetter, Warwickshire]
Venonis xii [= Venonis = High Cross, Leicestershire]
Bannaventa xvii [= Bannaventa = Whilton Lodge, Northhamptonshire]
Lactodor xii [= Lactodvrvm = Towcester, Northamptonshire]
Magiovinto xvii [= Magiovinivm = Dropshort, Buckinghamshire]
Durocobrivis xii [= Dvrocobrivis = Dunstable, Bedfordshire]
Verolamio xii [= Vervlamivm = St. Alban’s, Hertfordshire]
Sulloniacis viiii [= Svlloniacis = Brockley Hill, Greater London]
Londinio xii [= Londinivm = London, Greater London]
?Noviomago x [?= Noviomagvs = Crayford, Greater London?]
?Vagniacis xviii [?= Vagniacis = Springhead, Kent?]
Durobrivis viiii [= Dvrobrivae = Rochester, Kent]
?Durolevo xiii [?= Dvrolevvm = Ospringe, Kent?]
Duroverno xii [= Dvrovernvm = Canterbury, Kent]
Ad portum Ritupis xii [= Rvtvpiae = Richborough, Kent]
(Total 501)

(ITER III)

Item a Londinio ad portum Dubris mpm lxvi sic
[Likewise from Londinium to the port of Dubris sixty-six thousand paces thus written]
Durobrivis xxvii [= Dvrobrivae = Rochester, Kent]
Duroverno xxv [= Dvrovernvm = Canterbury, Kent]
Ad portum Dubris xiii [= Portvs Dvbris = Dover, Kent]
(Total 66)

(ITER IV)

Item a Londinio ad portum Lemanis mpm lxviii sic
[Likewise from Londinium to the port of Lemanis sixty-eight thousand paces thus written]
Durobrivis xxvii [= Dvrobrivae = Rochester, Kent]
Duroverno xxv [= Dvrovernvm = Canterbury, Kent]
Ad portum Lemanis xvi [= Portvs Lemanis = Lympne, Kent]
(Total 68)

(ITER V)

Item a Londinio Luguvalio ad vallum mpm ccccxliii sic
[Likewise from Londinium to Luguvalium (Carlisle, Cumbria) on the Wall four-hundred and forty-three thousand paces thus written]
Caesaromago xxviii [= Caesaromagvs = Chelmsford, Essex]
Colonia xxiiii [= Camvlodvnvm = Colchester, Essex]
?Villa Faustini xxxv [?= Scole, Norfolk?]
Icinos xviiii [= Venta Icenorvm = Caistor St. Edmund, Norfolk]
?Camborico xxxv [?= Camboritvm = Lackford, Suffolk?]
Duroliponte xxv [= Dvroliponte = Cambridge, Cambridgeshire]
Durobrivas xxxv [= Dvrobrivae = Water Newton, Cambridgeshire]
?Causennis xxx [?= Cavsennae = Ancaster, Lincolnshire?] [?= Saltersford, Lincolnshire?] [?= Sapperton, Lincolnshire?]
Lindo xxvi [= Lindvm = Lincoln, Lincolnshire]
Segeloci xiiii [= Segelocvm = Littleborough, Nottinghamshire]
Dano xxi [= Danvm = Doncaster, South Yorkshire]
?Legeolio xvi [?= Lagentivm = Castleford, South Yorkshire?]
Eburaco xxi [= Ebvracvm = York, North Yorkshire]
Isubrigantum xvii [= Isvrivm Brigantvm = Aldborough, North Yorkshire]
Cataractone xxiiii [= Cataractonivm = Catterick, North Yorkshire]
Levatris xviii [= Lavatris = Bowes, Durham]
Verteris xiiii [= Verteris = Brough Castle, Cumbria]
Brocavo xx [= Brocavvm = Brougham, Cumbria]
Luguvalio xxii [= Lvgvvalivm (carvetiorvm) = Carlisle, Cumbria]
(Total 443)

(ITER VI)

Item a Londinio Lindo mpm clvi sic
[Likewise from Londinium to Lindum one-hundred and fifty-six thousand paces thus written]
Verolami xxi [= Vervlamivm = St. Alban’s, Hertfordshire]
Durocobrivis xii [= Dvrocobrivis = Dunstable, Bedfordshire]
Magiovinio xii [= Magiovinivm = Dropshort, Buckinghamshire]
Lactodoro xvi [= Lactodvrvm = Towcester, Northamptonshire]
?Isannavantia xii [= Bannaventa = Whilton Lodge, Northamptonshire]
Tripontio xii [= Tripontivm = Cave’s Inn, Warwickshire]
Venonis viii [= Venonis = High Cross, Leicestershire]
Ratas xii [= Ratae = Leicester, Leicestershire]
?Verometo xiii [= Vernemetvm = Willoughby, Nottinghamshire]
Margiduno xii [= Margidvnvm = Castle Hill, Nottinghamshire]
Ad Pontem vii [= Ad Pontem = East Stoke, Nottinghamshire]
Crococalana vii [= Crococalana = Brough, Nottinghamshire]
Lindo xii [= Lindvm = Lincoln, Lincolnshire]
(Total 156)

(ITER VII)

Item a Regno Londinio mpm xcvi sic
[Likewise from [Noviomagus] Regnorum (Chichester, Sussex) to ?Clausentumxx[?= CLAVSENTVM = Bitterne, Hampshire?] [?= Wickham, Hampshire?] Venta Belgarumx[= VENTA BELGARVM = Winchester, Hampshire] Calleva Atrebatumxxii[= CALLEVA = Silchester, Hampshire] ?Pontibusxxii[= PONTES = Staines, Surrey] Londinioxxii[= LONDINIVM = London, Greater London] (Total 96)

(ITER VIII)

Item ab Eburaco Londinium mpm ccxxvii sic
[Likewise from Eburacum (York, North Yorkshire) to Londinium two-hundred and twenty-seven thousand paces thus written]
?Lagecio xxi [= Lagentivm = Castleford, South Yorkshire]
Dano xvi [= Danvm = Doncaster, South Yorkshire]
?Ageloco xxi [= Segelocvm = Littleborough, Nottinghamshire]
Lindo xiiii [= Lindvm = Lincoln, Lincolnshire]
Crococalana xiiii [= Crococalana = Brough, Nottinghamshire]
Margiduno xiiii [= Margidvnvm = Castle Hill, Nottinghamshire]
Vernemeto xii [= Vernemetvm = Willoughby, Nottinghamshire]
Ratis xii [= Ratae = Leicester, Leicestershire]
Venonis xii [= Venonis = High Cross, Leicestershire]
Bannavento xviii [= Bannaventa = Whilton Lodge, Northamptonshire]
Magiovinio xxviii [= Magiovinivm = Dropshort, Buckinghamshire]
Durocobrivis xii [= Dvrocobrivis = Dunstable, Bedfordshire]
Verolamo xii [= Vervlamivm = St. Alban’s, Hertfordshire]
Londinio xxi [= Londinivm = London, Greater London]
(Total 227)

(ITER IX)

Item a Venta Icinorum Londinio mpm cxxviii sic
[Likewise from Venta Inecorum (Caistor St. Edmund, Norfolk) to Londinium one-hundred and twenty-eight thousand paces thus written]
?Sitomago xxxii [?= Sitomagus ?= nr. Saxmundham, Suffolk? / Ixworth, Suffolk?]
Combretonio xxii [= Combretovivm = Baylham House, Suffolk]
?Ad Ansam xv [?= Ad Ansam ?= nr. Stratford St. Mary, Suffolk?]
Camoloduno vi [= Camvlodvnvm = Colchester, Essex]
Canonio viiii [= Canonivm = Kelvedon, Essex]
Caesaromago xii [= Caesaromagvs = Chelmsford, Essex]
?Durolito xvi [?= Dvrolitvm = Nr. Romford, Greater London?]
Londinio xv [= Londinivm = London, Greater London]
(Total 127)

(ITER X)

Item a Clanoventa Mediolano mpm cl sic
[Likewise from Glannoventa (Ravenglass, Cumbria) to Mediolanum one-hundred and fifty thousand paces thus written]
Galava xviii [= Galava = Ambleside, Cumbria]
?Alone xii [?= Alavana = Watercrook, Cumbria?]
?Calacum xviiii [?= Calacvm = Burrow in Lonsdale, Lancashire?]
Bremetonaci xxvii [= Bremetenacvm = Ribchester, Lancashire]
?Coccio xx [?= Coccivm = Wigan, Lancashire?]
Mancunio xvii [= Mamvcivm = Manchester, Greater Manchester]
Condate xviii [= Condate = Northwich, Cheshire]
Mediolano xviiii [= Mediolanvm = Whitchurch, Shropshire]
(Total 150)

(ITER XI)

Item a Segontio Devam mpm lxxiiii sic
[Likewise from Segontium (Caernarfon, Gwynedd) to Deva seventy-four thousand paces thus written]
Conovio xxiiii [= Canovivm = Caerhun, Gwynedd]
?Varis xviii [?= St. Asaph, Clwyd?]
Deva xxxii [= Deva = Chester, Cheshire]
(Total 74)

(ITER XII)

Item a Muriduno Viroconium mpm clxxxvi sic
[Likewise from Moridunum (Carmarthen, Dyfed) to Viroconium one-hundred and eighty-six thousand paces thus written]
?Vindomi xv [?= Vindomis = Neatham, Hampshire?]
Venta Belgarum xxi [= Venta Belgarvm = Winchester, Hampshire]
?Brige xi [?= Briga = nr. Horsebridge, Hampshire?]
Sorvioduni viii [= Sorviodvnvm = Old Sarum, Wiltshire]
Vindogladia xii [= Vindocladia = Badbury, Dorset]
Durnonovaria viii [= Dvrnovaria = Dorchester, Dorset]
?Muridono xxxvi [?= Muridunum = nr. Honiton, Devon?]
Isca Dumnoniorum xv [= Isca = Exeter, Devon]
[Anomaly#1 in Original Text – Discussed Below]
Leucaro xv [= Levcarvm = Loughor, West Glamorgan]
Nido xv [= Nidvm = Neath, West Glamorgan]
?Bomio xv [?= Bomivm = nr. Bridgend, Mid Glamorgan?]
Iscae leg. ii Augusta xxvii [= Isca = Caerleon, Gwent] [home of Legio Secunda Augusta]
Burrio viiii [= Bvrrivm = Usk, Gwent]
Gobannio xii [= Gobannivm = Abergavenny, Gwent]
Magnis xxii [= Magnis = Kenchester, Hereford & Worcester]
Bravonio xxiiii [= Bravonivm = Leintwardine, Hereford & Worcester]
Viroconio xxvii [= Viroconivm = Wroxeter, Shropshire]
(Total 272)
  1. There is an obvious error in the British section here. The stations above this point seem to have been copied directly from Iter XV (see below), and the following entries have all been identified with places in South Wales. Perhaps some unknown medieval copyist made the mistake of equating Muridono (nr. Honiton, Devon) with Moridunum (Carmarthen, Dyfed), and thus transposed an entire block of text.

(ITER XIII)

Item ab Isca Calleva mpm cviiii sic
[Likewise from Isca Silurum (Caerleon, Gwent) to Calleva Atrebatum one-hundred and nine thousand paces thus written]
Burrio viiii [= Bvrrivm = Usk, Gwent]
?Blestio xi [?= Blestivm = Monmouth, Gwent?]
Ariconio xi [= Ariconivm = Weston under Penyard, Hereford & Worcester]
Clevo xv [= Glevvm = Gloucester, Gloucestershire]
[Anomaly#2 in Original Text – Discussed Below]
?Durocornovio xiiii [?= Dvrocornovivm = Wanborough, Wiltshire?]
?Spinis xv [?= Spinae = nr. Newbury, Berkshire?]
Calleva xv [= Calleva Attrebatum (Silchester) = Silchester, Hampshire]
(Total 90)
  1. There is another obvious error in this itinerary. An unknown copyist seems to have missed out the entry for Corinium Dobunnorum (Cirencester, Gloucestershire), which lies 15 miles from both Gloucester and Wanborough; the multiple occurrences of the distance numerals XV in the text, very likely being the cause of the original omission.

(ITER XIV)

Item alio itinere ab Isca Calleva mpm ciii sic
[Likewise an alternate route from Isca Silurum to Calleva Atrebatum one-hundred and three thousand paces thus written]
Venta Silurum viiii [= Venta Silurum = Caerwent, Gwent]
Abone xiiii [= Abona = Sea Mills, Avon] [Quite likely a journey by ferry across the Bristol Channel.]
?Traiectus viiii [?= Traiectvs = Bitton, nr. Willsbridge, Avon?]
Aquis Solis vi [= Aqvae Svlis = Bath, Avon]
Verlucione xv [= Verlvcio = Sandy Lane, Wiltshire]
Cunetione xx [= Cvnetio = Mildenhall, Wiltshire]
?Spinis xv [?= Spinae = nr. Newbury, Berkshire?]
Calleva xv [= Calleva Attrebatum (Silchester) = Silchester, Hampshire]
(Total 103)

(ITER XV)

Item a Calleva Isca Dumnoniorum mpm cxxxvi sic
[Likewise from Calleva Attrebatum (Silchester) to Isca Dumnoniorum one-hundred and thirty-six thousand paces thus written]
?Vindomi xv [?= Vindomis = Neatham, Hampshire?]
Venta Belgarum xxi [= Venta Belgarvm = Winchester, Hampshire]
?Brige xi [?= Briga = nr. Horsebridge, Hampshire?]
Sorbiodoni viii [= Sorviodvnvm = Old Sarum, Wiltshire]
Vindogladia xii [= Vindocladia = Badbury, Dorset]
Durononvaria viii [= Dvrnovaria = Dorchester, Dorset]
?Muriduno xxxvi [?= Muridunum = nr. Honiton, Devon?]
Isca Dumnoniorum xv [= Isca = Exeter, Devon]
(Total 126)

The text in the following table is based on Parthey and Pinder’s Edition (1848, Berlin); including Wesseling’s 1735 additions (enclosed within parentheses).