The Auxiliary Infantry Cohorts of Britain

Cohors Peditata et Equitata – Auxiliary Infantry and Mixed Cohorts

Auxiliary soldiers were organised in infantry units, cohorts (singular cohors, plural cohortes, abbreviated to coh) and cavalry units, alae (singular ala). Infantry units could also sometimes include a cavalry element (cohors equitata), sometimes described as ‘part-mounted’ regiments. There were two sizes of both cohors and ala, quingenary (quingenaria) and milliary (milliaria), the former with a nominal strength of 500 men, the latter with a nominal strength of 1,000 men, although in practice these figures are different. There were dozens of different auxiliary units based in Britain at any one time. They were made up of cavalry, infantry and mixed units and campaigned and were garrisoned with the legions. Most of the forts of Roman Britain were used by auxiliaries.

The main infantry subdivision of the cohort was the centuria containing 80 men, itself divided into 10 sections (contubernia). The term centuria was often symbolised by an abbbreviation resembling a 7. The main subdivision of the ala or of the cavalry contingent in a cohors equitata was the turma probably consisting of 32 cavalrymen.

1 Cohors Primae Ubiorum
2 Cohors Secundae Vasconum
3 Cohors Primae Fida Vardullorum civium Romanorum equitata milliaria
4 Cohors Primae Sunicorum
5 Cohors Secundae Thracum
6 Cohors Sextae Thracum
7 Cohors Septimae Thracum
8 Cohors Primae Tungrorum [milliaria]
9 Cohors Secundae Tungrorum milliaria equitata
10 Cohors Primae Vangionum [milliaria]
11 Cohors Primae Morinorum
12 Cohors Primae Nerviorum
13 Cohors Secundae Nerviorum
14 Cohors Tertiae Nerviorum
15 Cohors Sextae Nerviorum
16 Cohors Secundae Gallorum
17 Cohors Primae Pannoniorum
18 Cohors Quartae Gallorum
19 Cohors Secundae Pannoniorum
20 Cohors Quintae Gallorum
21 Cohors Quintae Raetorum
22 Cohors Primae Nervana Germanorum milliaria equitata
23 Cohors Sextae Raetorum
24 Cohors Primae Hamiorum Saggitariorum
25 Cohors Primae Hispanorum equitata
26 Cohors Primae Lingonum
27 Cohors Secundae Lingonum
28 Cohors Tertiae Lingonum
29 Cohors Quartae Lingonum
30 Cohors Primae Menapiorum – The First Cohort of Menapii
31 Cohors Primae Delmatarum
32 Cohors Secundae Delmatarum Equitata
33 Cohors Secundae Vasconorum civium Romanorum
34 Cohors Quartae Delmatarum
35 Cohors Primae Alpinorum
36 Cohors Primae Frisiavonum
37 Cohors Primae Aquitanorum
38 Cohors Quartae Frisiavonum?
39 Cohors Secundae Asturum equitata
40 Cohors Quartae Asturum equitata
41 Cohors Primae Baetasiorum civium Romanorum
42 Cohors Primae Batavorum Equitata
43 Cohors Tertiae Bracaraugustanorum
44 Cohors Quartae Breucorum [Antoninianae]
45 Cohors Primae Celtiberorum
46 Cohors Primae Aeliae Classicae
47 Cohors Primae Cornoviorum
48 Cohors Primae Cugernorum
49 Cohors Primae Dacorum
50 Cohors Primae Thracum